What is pneumonia? | Respiratory system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
- Articles, Blog

What is pneumonia? | Respiratory system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Voiceover: When you
hear the term pneumonia, I think that most of us
think about lung infection, but not much else besides that. Pneumonia really is a little bit more than just a lung infection, really in relation to where it is. As we’re looking at this image here I want to focus on the
lungs that I’ve drawn out. We know that we have a
right and a left lung. Our right lung, I’m just going to draw out some lobes here, we know that we’ve got three lobes in our right lung, so we have an upper, a middle, and a lower. In our left we’ve got two. We know that we have an airway, so our main airway. Now don’t focus on this yellow line yet. Just focus on our main airway. We know that we breathe in air, and that air is going to travel down through these smaller branches, these branches that branch off. At the end of our airway, we have these little grape-like sacs. I’m just going to draw a couple just right here so we can see. These little grape-like
sacs are actually air sacs, and we call those aveoli. The alveoli is really important because that’s where the
gas exchange happens. This is where ultimately the oxygen is going to end up, and where we’ll pick up carbon dioxide to exhale out. Why is this important? When we talk about pneumonia, the pneumonia, the infection, is actually in these air sacs. What I’m doing is I’m drawing these sacs as if we could blow them up millions and millions of times, because they’re actually very, very tiny. We have millions of them everywhere at the end of our airways. So if we could blow them up, they’d look something like this. Now right underneath it, I’m going to just keep drawing the kind of structure that we can expect that we’ll see. We have air sacs I’ve drawn. Right underneath our air sacs we have tiny blood vessels that run beneath them and all around them. In between our air sacs, we
just have some lung tissue. I’ll just make that this brown color, make some lines to
represent our lung tissue. So when we say that a
person has pneumonia, the pneumonia infection is
actually inside of these air sacs, and this is where the pneumonia is. Now any time that there’s an infection or injury in the body, the body’s response at that site, is to cause inflammation. That means that the tissue,
that alveolar tissue Is going to inflame, and
it’s going to leak fluid. That fluid I’m making green, and I’m filling up the
alveoli with this green fluid to represent the infection. It’s going to leak out infected fluid into this air sac. Now, why is this a problem? Remember, we’re breathing in air. Let’s come over here and make this blue. Let’s say that here’s my air. I’m just going to travel
down some blue air. I’m breathing that down. I’m breathing that down. I’m breathing that down. It’s coming all the way
down to our alveoli, because this is where I
want to drop off the oxygen so I can breathe and
ultimately get the oxygen into my capillaries,
because that’s what we need. The problem is that I have this block. I have this infectious
fluid that’s blocking that absorption of oxygen, and it’s going to block the exhalation of carbon dioxide as well. That’s the problem with pneumonia. It’s taking up air space. As you can see, if this
person had pneumonia, and let’s go ahead and even draw it on our smaller grid, let’s shade in some green into our alveoli here. If this person had pneumonia, what will we expect to see in them? We can see that we have our air sacs being occupied with this
infectious material. Think about how that’s going
to affect their breathing. One of the things that we’re going to see is dyspnea, which really is a fancy term for difficulty breathing. The problem that we’re having really is shortness of breath. I’ll just put short, short of breath. That’s because, looking at our image, we see that we’re not able to have that gas exchange. We can’t get that oxygen into our space, because it’s being
blocked by something else. They’re going to be
experiencing chest pain as well. We know that’s secondary
to the inflammation that’s happening at the alveolar level. We have pain receptors in our chest, so we’re going to feel that. How about cough? Thinking about all that
fluid in our air sacs, what do you think the body
is going to try to do? It’s definitely going to try to cough. That’s the mechanism that our body has. It’s going to try to cough to squeeze out and force out that
fluid out of the airways to clear it, so we have room to breathe. We keep talking about infection. With infection you can
expect to see a fever. That could be low grade, or
that could be high grade. How does this happen? How do we get a pneumonia infectioand? There’s really two ways. It can be from organisms, just that we get out in the community, or it can be from other ways that might not fit into that category. For the first one, I want
you to think about organisms. I’m going to come over to this shoulder. I’m going to draw in a circle. That’s going to represent my bacteria. I’m going to draw in a
little viral illustration to represent a virus. Bacteria and viruses are certainly the most common causes of pneumonia. The good thing is that we have vaccines to combat two of the biggest culprits, which would be our
Streptococcus pneumoniae, that’s our bacteria, and the flu virus. These are our big, big offenders that cause pneumonia infections. Now when we pick up an organism, like a bacteria or a virus, and we can also get fungi
and mycoplasmas as well, we call this community acquired. I’m going to write that here. Community-acquired pneumonia. When I say pick up, I mean just in our everyday activities. Community, you’re thinking about people. Think about work or school, or you’re out doing leisure activities. Because you’re surrounded by people, and if you picked up an organism from somebody that was ill, we would call that
community-acquired pneumonia. Just as we have air, we know that the transmission of air into our lungs, if we get a bacteria
that enters our airway, it’s going to travel down, and it’s going to cause this infection. We said we would talk about other ways. Something that falls under our other way would be ventilator-assisted or ventilator-acquired pneumonia. I’m going to write that here, ventilator-acquired pneumonia. Make my D better, pneumonia. If someone’s on a ventilator, we know that they’re connected to a tube that’s delivering oxygen to them. Let’s come over here, and actually just erase away my little air
symbol that I made earlier. That way we can make room for our tube. I’m just going to put it down to here. In this orange color,
let’s draw in this tube. We know the tube is inserted through the mouth or through the nose, and then it’s guided down into the airway. It’ll end about here. This tube is going to be delivering oxygen to this patient. On the outside, this tube is actually connected to a device. I’m going to write O2 here, because we know that’s doing
the work of breathing for them. Well, what’s a problem with this? We know that because it’s a direct route from the outside to the inside, that things like bacteria, viruses, other harmful organisms can actually get inside of the tube, can grow, and cause a pneumonia infection. Another way that we can get pneumonia that doesn’t quite fit under our community acquired, or ventilator acquired would be aspiration. Aspiration means to breathe in. In this case, we would be breathing in something into the lungs
that shouldn’t be there. Let’s get rid of our tube, so we can visualize aspiration. I want you to really think about patients that are at
greatest risk for this, like patients that have been experiencing vomiting, for instance. We could aspirate vomit into our lungs. If we take a look at that yellow object that I said don’t focus on that earlier, take a look at that now
and see how it’s moving. This yellow object is our epiglottis. Our epiglottis really directs traffic. We know that we have one main tube, but this tube actually is split into two. One route’s going to go to the stomach, and one route’s going to go to our lungs. Let me leave that open for a second and let’s see the difference. In blue, here, this is going to be our direct route to our lungs. Then in green, here, this would be our route to our stomach. I’ll just keep that going down, like it’s going to our stomach. In the event that our epiglottis is open, that means that something can get inside of our airway. In this case, we talked about vomit. If somebody was vomiting, our epiglottis is open, we can actually aspirate
the vomit into our lungs. Because our lungs are
a sterile environment, anything that gets in there that’s carrying bacteria is a danger to us, because it can make us very sick. The same thing can happen with somebody that is eating and accidentally aspirates food into their lungs.

About James Carlton

Read All Posts By James Carlton

100 thoughts on “What is pneumonia? | Respiratory system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

  1. I had pneumonia before that's something not to joke around with I remember I was on my nebulizer machine I told my step dad I couldn't breathe he called the ambulance and they came to pick me up every time when I cough up my mucus was yellow and it took my breath away. I was in the hospital for a month and a half I had to get a trachatomy I had to learn how to talk and walk again I was really bad off doctors said I wasn't going to make it it feels like I was on my death bed some of my family and friends came to see me that's the worst feeling ever Im glad I made it through it I shouda been dead.

  2. I had pneumonia and asthma attacks at the same time when I was like 10 yrs old. It was terrible I just remember coughing was terrible, and I was in the bed for so long.

  3. I felt like hell for six weeks. No shortness of breath or wheezing. Thought I had bronchitis. I felt like I started to seriously get worse so I finally went to get help. After a chest scan I was told I had pneumonia of the lower right lung. They gave me a horse sized shot of anti biotic. Cured! This disease is no joke. They told me if I hadn't went in when i did I would have gotten very seriously ill.

  4. When was a newborn baby. I had pneumonia. My grandpa said to the doctor "i will lose all my money just for you to cure my grand son." Then i got cured. Thanks to my grandpa and to the lord 👌🏻

    EDIT: btw that was 11 years ago

  5. Jamie Magnate, monkeyarura, and Jenna, I see where you all are coming from. I've had asthma since I was a little kid and still have it now. Yesterday, I just went to the hospital and they diagnosed me with pneumonia AGAIN! I've had pneumonia when I was 1 1/2 – 2 years old and I was hospitalized for a while. I heard that my mom protested not to give me steroids for a year and instead, asked the doctors to only give me it until I feel better. That's then, and I don't remember much then. Now, I'm staying home from my school dealing with pneumonia and getting all sorts of medicine. They say I'm lucky I'm not hospitalized, but if I get worse, take me to the ER. I hope we don't need to go to that section of the hospital. To those who has asthma/pneumonia, good luck. This is the second time I could die. Oh, and what's weird is that I have pneumonia in early fall which is hot in 2017, so it could get a lot worse hopefully not. Edited I also had a fever and an X-ray on my waist for some reason maybe they also got my chest idk.

  6. I had Penumbra about 7 years ago when I was 6 years old. I don't remember anything about it at all but I have been told I had a 106 fever and I was so sick I was unable to walk. I honestly had no idea what it was until I watched this video. The person who made this did a really good job at explaining.

  7. I've had a minor case of pneumonia for a month and I just finished my antibiotics. My body hates healing so I'll probably need another round like last time. Gym class is torture though.

  8. My sister has this and I’m so scared that she may die of it because she is only 6 years old. What do I do to stop worrying or help her?

  9. I was diagnosed with it yesterday and tomorrow is thanksgiving. It sucks but it’s not as bad as a lot of other cases. Oh and a sinus infection at the same time makes it a bit worse but my eye color is awesome.

  10. Who else is watching this because of the little girl with the well preserved body
    Also I want to know more information about this
    Thank you so much this was really useful

  11. when i was 15 i got this cold and i thought it will be ok on it's own so i didn't use any treatments after 2 weeks i started to have this very uncomfortable uneasy feeling on my rib cage when i take a breath or swallow something, i went to the doctor and got diagnosed as pneumonia.

  12. I've had this twice, it was probably the most painful days of my life, and LUCK ME! Shots ( because thats how its healed ) ended and the whole therapy to get rid of it stopped when it was my BIRTHDAY, literally that was the best day ever because i also got my dog then! 😀

  13. My brother figured out he had pneumonia 4 days ago he is 13 and he had a horrible cough he would cough like crazy but only liquid would come out.

  14. Ummm I have pneumonia (my doctor diagnosed me) and I haven’t had shortness of breath and I have never had chest pain, only coughing and fevers

  15. Nice mouse work. If anyone's here to actually try to find some new information about pneumonia I'm with you. Friend of mine just hit the hospital.

  16. My grandpa has pneumonia cuz he cough a lot and he cough extremely hard and soon maybe this disease will spread to me. Wish me luck that this disease from my grandpa will not spread to me! Btw I’m 10

  17. I has bronchitis 2 times when I was a year old. Then walking pneumonia lower left lobe when I was 7. It felt more like having a very bad cold. Then the next 40+ years no lower respiratory issues. Ive had influenza every few years & always recovered ok. I started getting flu shots every year since 22011.This year I caught influenza April 26. The pattern was drastically different. The fever was masked by dayquil. I was getting weaker by the day, couldn't leave the house, barely managing to eat. I was coughing intermittently, still am. Beginning May my ribs started hurting thought it was muscle aches from the flu & it felt like getting punched hard in the ribs. My practioner came to examine me at my house & heard snap crackle pop in my lower left lobe then told me I have pneumonia. Told me to call 911 since I was weak. Got chest x-ray & full confirmation of pneumonia. Didn't have to be hospitalized. Got given strong antibiotics as I have RA & diabetes too. I could feel the life returning almost the next day. Right now doing better but still weakened & fatigue easy. Still have chest pain at level one better than level 6-7. The windy weather makes me cough more. I got a follow up in 2 days. Now I'm left wondering how my respiratory system will be in the future after all this.

  18. I sadly have pneumonia just now it’s annoying because we are going to Italy on Tuesday so I hope I get better I’m in hospital and got X-rays and they saw three big white dots of bacteria but yesterday they said it’s shifting and I’m coughing up a lot of mucus and some bits of blood so hopefully I get better

  19. I have pneumonia in my right lung and I am 10 years old. I have been taking antiniotics 9 days and today it is my last day 🙂 So the total is actually 10 days. I had high fever and very bad cough 🙁 But I am okay now! I was always 100F and always over for the first 5 days. I was always tired and wooozy 🙁 What made it worse is that I had strep throat 🙁 I couldn't share a drink or any food with my family because they might get it too… I took Blood tests and got IV because I was very weak ^-^ My grandma died of pneumonia but she was old then but I am still very young and I am sure I can recover! 😀

  20. … I had Pneumonia when I was 1 years old ;-;
    And All tye milk that would give me I would just vomit.
    I had lots of phlegm

  21. I broke my collar bone and dislocated my shoulder so it is very hard to breathe and because I was taking short breaths I got pneumonia.. great !

  22. I had pneumonia when I was a baby and I somehow made it through, then I got it again when I was 5 and I missed 2 weeks of kindergarten and I’ve never been sick since, not even a cold

  23. I had pneumonia when I was little in the 70s & had it again this year in May. Both times in the same lobe left lower lobe. This year was the worst.

  24. Good in detail information helpful but here is link for pneumonia information in hindi.

  25. Ehm I just found out I had pneumonia today and I was like what the hell is pneumonia there giving me these pills and there huge as hell

  26. New feature – "medicine" for your phone!

    Instructions for use video file in the description below!

    Until completely free!

    Helps against many antibiotic-resistant diseases.

    As a bonus, it is also the strongest painkiller!


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *