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85 thoughts on “Sunni and Shia Islam part 2 | World History | Khan Academy

  1. Regarding the video description, the definition of fitnah is not civil war. It has multiple meanings but the most comprehensible one would be a "trial" or "test". It's best to remove the word fitnah from the description.

  2. Interesting introduction. I hope no flame wars erupt here, and amicable discussions are abound, but I always wonder: how many narratives of the same event exist that we can readily study, and how often do they conflict with each other? Nonetheless, ignorance of facts is rarely bliss in a discussion, and I am glad that I feel inspired to learn a bit more then what I assumed I would have already learnt before. Thanks Khan Academy for diversifying to such interesting topics!

  3. You also forgot to mention that Yazid was Muawiya's (RA) son. But that's understood I guess. You are doing a tremendous job explaining such a complex and difficult issue in such a lucid and compact manner. Never thought it was possible. Of course the nuances are missed but for an overview of the issue (including some of the nuances) this is a brilliant effort.

    p.s you have actually captured a fair bit of the nuances. Which makes it even more brilliant.

  4. Thank you. Your videos have helped many many around the world. Also in Afghanistan.
    My math skills are mastered by Khan Academy, and has been very useful since.

  5. Yet again Shiite information is false or is wrongly interpreted, quite possibly because it is taken from non-shias. Would you learn about the Catholic faith from a Protestant or a Catholic? Please read books such as Nahjul Balagha, which is a compilation of the letters and sermons of Imam Ali. It gives a lot of historical context necessary to understand the complicated era.

  6. It's amazing to me that people are still fighting battles that began centuries ago. It keeps going in circles even though we all have the ability to stop the momentum and realize that there is only now.

  7. It's weird how this is supposed to be a comparison of the 2 divisions but your narrative is just the Sunni version.

  8. To be clear, those people in Ali's army who provoked each battle were what later became the the Khawarij. Also the killers of Uthman (ra) were in the army of Ali (ra). They didn't want to be caught.

  9. I understand that your trying to keep the history close to what it says in the books, but I believe that you should reach out to get a little more knowledge about the conflict since history is written by the victors.

  10. I truely admire your work and I respect you as a person but this is a subject thats very close to my heart and I think you should have read about both side rather than just one.

  11. Not all companions were good. Some of them were very crooked and bad.
    Aisha was foretold by Prophet in his life time that one of his wives will be responsible for the killing of more than 125000 Muslims. As a warning, street dogs will bark on her way to fight with the Muslim. But she did not believe in Prophet. So, how can she be a Muslim?
    As a widow, she travelled with many men.
    First, she revolted against Usman for curtailing her monthly maintenance allowance. Then she was provoked by Muwawiya to revolt against Imam Ali AS. So, she is the only woman in the history of Islam to lead a war with men. This war is called `Jung-e-Jamal'. She surrendered after Imam Ali AS threatened that she would be out of the respected list of Prophet's wives. She was brought down by her brother Muhammad-e-Hanifia (the adopted son of Imam Ali AS) and escorted by Imam Hassan AS and Imam Hussain AS.
    She celebrated the death of Imam Ali AS.
    In Prophet's life, she made fun of BB Khatija PBUH.
    She claimed that Quran is incomplete.
    Muwawiya got her killed in elephant trap.
    He also killed her brother Muhammad-e-Hanifia and stuffed his body in a donkey.

  12. Can someone explain to me what the purpose of Imamate is in Shiah Islam for Religious studies I can't find information anywhere?x

  13. I still don't get why it's a big deal. Why Islam? I know Christianity exists as a more rated R version of judaism, but why Islam? Who was it freeing and from what?

  14. First of all, many thanks to your non bias approach it really allows for a seeker of truth to make a just approach to the information given !!! Subscribed !!!

  15. A lot of people in the comment are whining about "this is historically inaccurate, you should have studied the Sunni" while he has stated multiple times that THIS IS ACCORDING TO SHIA TRADITION!!! At the end of the day, he doesn't care to spread a religious message, but to talk about the history from a point of view not many people know about.

  16. Yazid what on Earth was he thinking to kill a decedent of Muhammad! How could God have allowed this ? Its like some how Jesus being stabbed by some crazy Roman soldier before he has a chance to begin his ministry. Just madness and truly striking how a religion supposed to be from God has so many errors and strange things happening which cause troubles and great divisions against its people and things u think a religion from God would not have suffered. Like How Muhammed died the circumstances around his death and not being clear on who was to take over considering he it took him years to die, you think he would have made it clear to stop infighting and else. Even today people still dying from this great blunder. Islam was born out of death and pain and confusion and astounding mistakes these demons follow it always all its days until it will be no more. How can a Muslim behead a 6-month-old baby of a fellow Muslim on what or who orders such a crime even cries to one's conscious no? Would have been more respectful to detain Husayn and his family not kill them. Funny of all the peace is spoken about Islam yet killing was rife after Muhammed for power poor Ali was killed & Uthman and this is peace.

  17. Tbh I have never liked Muawiyya and Umayyad Caliphate, even If I'm a Sunni. The heck were they thinking killing off Muhammad's family like that? I would like to hear about the Shia version really, as this video is hardly balanced, maybe the division isn't as bad as it seems and finally we can at least say hello without going to each other's throat.

  18. Same bloody civil war going on arab region till today.
    And All started from a power hungry family and their jealousy.
    Aisha and abubakkar vs fatima and ali

  19. Left the part where Kufa people wrote thousands of letters to Hazrat Husnain (RA) and then betrayed him. Not a single person came to defend him. They even caught and gave his close friend Hazrat Muslim (RA) to yazid, who beheaded him.

  20. I am Shia but I respect all of my Suni brother.
    I love all the people of the world I love humanity and peaceful life

  21. Two clear mistakes, Hazrat Ali moved to kufa when forces of Hazrat Aisha had already captured Basra and looted its bait ul Meal. Second, Hazrat Ali had almost won the war with Hazrat Muavia but then he swore on Quran in order to divide Hazrat Ali forces. Later he was successful in foiling the legitimate Islamic governance and establishing personal dynasty illegally. An essential part of that was murder of Hazrat Ali.

  22. There is a huge difference between the religion of Muawiya and the people of Sakifa and the religion of Muhammad and Al Muhammad..

  23. Muhammed (saw) completed the religion, nothing to add or remove , the killers of his family are enemies of Islam, but why does this seperate muslims today? The only thing that can seperate muslims is different RELIGIOUS belief not historical, the Shia have strange belief and books from Imams added to the faith , Sunni Islam is the same Islam that Muhammed (saw) preached and practised.

  24. I could be wrong… But I thought I remembered hearing that Muawiya was basically implying Ali had something to do with the deaths of his predecessors and was basically tryi g to back him into a corner politically?

  25. Don't say hazrat hassan (a.s) couldn't fight coz of weak army,actually he was grandson of prophet who was never in favour of human bloodshed for power,so he went for peace treaty coz of his best training by prophet, where love of power never exists.hassan and hussain were embodiment of love and sacrifices. They n their father never loved power n control. They just loved humanity.

  26. Like many in the west, I know very little about Islam, so thank you for this video. It sounds like there was a lot of infighting over political power in the early days. It also sounds like the Shia have a strong reason to feel like Ali got seriously ripped off– first on Muhammad's death, and then in the killing of his descendants. My question is why is there such conflict between Sunni and Shia today? Are there major doctrinal differences in their views on God/Allah, or how Muslims should live?

    My personal view is that a) it's a tragedy– and an insult to the Creator– for his children to kill each other over their beliefs, and b) this killing is a far greater crime than worshipping the "wrong way." But this seems like an even bigger tragedy if the core reason Sunni and Shia fight and kill each other is over the actions of power-hungry leaders hundreds of years ago. Thank you for any answers here– I'm asking in good faith.

  27. Make sense..if i choose to follow the tragedies in Islam, there must be many more tradition exist. My opinion is, the tragedy must be remembered as reminder, how costly the fight to Islam unity & brotherhood. I must say that i will take it as lesson that Islam community must unite. The problem is when the followers is become extreme to follow certain leaders. Leadership is not inherited. Anybody may have this character. There should be only type of Muslim, as Muslim must follow the same teaching from Prophet Muhammad SAW (peace be upon him)

  28. That hassan peace treaty of electing is not true.
    The deal was that after him (muawiya) the caliphate goes to him (Hassan) unless if he aint alive then it goes to Hussain.

  29. that’s what i think is the problem of islam, the quran is holy script and me as a muslim should read it and interpret it in a way the should reflect my timeline and the age i live in.
    the whole thing started because of a hadith by muhammad PBUH that was interpreted in 2 different ways.
    basically all the jihadis, killing of gay,women must be completely covered head to toe etc…..of both sunni and shia traditions are all hadith said by Muhammad and in our modern age is interpreted into a million way.
    for example in the quran it said alchohol and gambling are the work of devil, they have benefits but the harm they do outweighs the benefits because it will divert you from worshipping god, for my current interpretation in the age i live in it was really about habits that are addictive, its only said alcohol and gambling because that was what destructive lifestyle for them at the time and i believe if heroin and all these other drugs was available back then im sure the holy script would’ve also included them as they are much more destructive.
    my point is just read the quran and interpret for yourself and work by the hadith that are simple don’t indulge into interpretation of different hadiths and take them all for granted,only take the quran for granted, if we all do that the world of islam would be much more united.
    btw there are no mentions of sunni or shiaa in the quran :), have a great day for all the muslims, christians, jews and all religions even the atheist and lgbt community as the last verse of the quran said you be you and i’ll be mine.

  30. My mother is shia and my father Sunni, each of them wanted me to become „one of them“. I did not want them to argue over me so I told them I don’t want to do anything with islam. But at some point Allah SWT guided me to the right path alhamdulilah so I had to check both sides. I have to admit that for me the shia side has a lot of logical flaws which I will state here. Also I had the feeling that they pick verses out of context and interpret them as they like. Maybe some shia brother can answer my questions.

    1) Shias are interpreting riba as usary and not interest. So it is halal to take and give interest. This is the number one reasons why I could not become shia. There is no doubt that interest is the cause of all economical problems (even if interest is only 1%). You can check this out everywhere, it is FACT! Gods economic system is zakat! The best form of tax. So if a believe has one mistake, I can’t believe that it comes from god. Sunnis reject any form of interest

    2) Khums: Shias say you have to pay 1/5th of your yearly income as a form of tax. To me this is flawed exactly like our current system and stands in contrast to zakat! I don’t know any shia who is paying the khums. The Quran says it won’t make us do something which is too hard for us to do. The Sunni view is that khums is only for war times. The surah in the quran where khums is mentioned is clearly talking about war times and no where else in the Quran is khums mentioned!

    3) Marriage just for a period of time
    Go to the father and mother of a shia girl and ask them if they are alright with marrying their daughter for a set period. Again most of them don’t like it.

    4) I don’t believe our prophet peace be upon him chose Ali as the second caliph. The reason for my opinion is that if he would have done so, every Muslim leader in the future would have put his son as his successor. Making the caliphate a kingship. We all want to follow the prophet and this would have been the best excuse. We condemn Muawiya for putting Yazid as his successor instead voting, but with appointing Ali as the second caliph we would have given him the perfect justification to do so! The way the first 4 caliphs were chosen/voted is a perfect for of democracy. Let the most knowledgeable and god fearing/ most suited be caliph.
    If Allah SWT wanted he would have given our prophet peace be upon him sons himself.

    5) Shias accusing Abu Bakr/ Omar for stealing the title of the caliphate doesn’t make sense to me too. Abu Bakr gave up all his wealth and risked his life for the prophet peace be upon him, so why on earth would he risk to go into hell fire by disobeying the order of the prophet? Same goes for Omar

    6) Why would Ali give his daughter to Omar as a wife when he stole the title of caliph from him?

    7) Why are the other imams all from the lineage of Husayn and not Hassan? Is it because he gave the title of caliph to Muawiya?

    8) Are Shias believing that a caliph/Imam has to be someone without sin and of the family of the prophet? What happens if all the successors die and none is left?

    These are some of my thoughts in regards to the shia view while researching myself. I couldn’t find anything contradicting in the Sunni view. My objection here is not to offend anyone, just sharing my own experience.

  31. As an academic, there are certain points that you have stated incorrectly. Ali ibne Abu Talib's followers did not instigate the war against Ayesha. Ayesha lead a force against Ali. His son, Hasan was poisoned by Mowavia. There many smaller points, but the point that is very important. The Shia belief is that as Mohummad was the "Prophet", "Rasool by divine right so the successor of Mohummad is also a divine choice. That is the key contention. The Shia believe that Mohummad did not decide who his successor was, he announced what was the Divine anointment at Ghadeer-e-Khum. Thank you for your hard work.

  32. This Video (including part 1 and 2) was so amazingly simple and clear about the difference of Shia and Sunni.. Thanks for the time and efforts you brought to bring this to people.. I dont feel there is any difference about being called as Shia and Sunni, except some political difference and situation that demanded separation on group of people. Because I feel Shia and Sunni still stand on same faith of One Allah and Prophet Mohammed. And rest is just opinion who should have been caliphate, which should not separate us different as Muslims.

  33. I really appreciate the work of Khan Academy. It's too bad I can't donate in the country. I really love how the information he provides is completely of any form of bias, which I feel a lot of Muslims who try to explain the situation fail to do.

  34. Facts on Yazid that was missed in the video-
    1) Yazid was the son of Muoweya
    2) Yazid was not a great human, let alone be the leader. He was Evil.
    3) He sent an Army of 30,000 to kill Imam Hussain, his family and companions whom altogether were 72 people. By these figures, clearly he was a psycho.
    Imam Hussain stood up against oppression, he was betrayed by the Kufa people whom said they were with him but disappeared after the threats of Yazid.
    Karbala is not a forgettable event. It consists of sacrifice, courage, bravery, leadership, family, true companionship, fight against oppression, fight for freedom, fight for what is right against the wrong. He was from the blood of Prophet Muhammad, yet he was brutelly murdered and then you have some people who say they are Muslim, yet overlook this event.

  35. Great job but you're missing some crucial points,
    1. The reason why Hazrat Ali refused to bring justice to Uthman's killers was because the killers were too large in number and H.Ali wasn't ready to punish the large number of people without the proper facts and records so that no innocent is punished
    2. Muaviya was wrong to oppose H.Ali. It was clear he only wanted his clan, Ummayads, to rule. Uthman was also wrong to put too many rulers from his own family – clearly the Ummayads wanted domination in the Muslim empire. Without Muaviya's alliegance Hazrat Ali was scared his rule would be weakened and would cause problems similar to those that happened to Uthman.
    3. Hazrat Hassan did not refuse to fight because of a weak army. He was the grandson of Holy Prophet and would put up a great opposition but he refused since he didn't want any bloodshed
    4. Imam Hussain did not only refuse allegiance to Yazeed because he broke the treaty but also because he was a person straying away from Islam, he would gamble, drink wine and commit sins hence Imam Hussain wasn't ready to hand over the Muslim empire to someone filled with falsehood.
    4. The people of Kufa were at the side of Imam Hussain, however, after the Imam received letters of support Yazeed placed a very strict anti-Hussain ruler who would kill/torture anyone who took the Imams side hence everyone backed out

  36. amazing that this man knows more history than probably half of our own sunni and shia brothers. I want to try to make a logical statement and I don't want to argue too much with the brothers but doesn't it make sense that god would leave a successor after our beloved prophet (S.A.W.S) to protect the message of our beloved messenger? If god didn't leave an appointed successor, do you not think that the message would have been altered like the message of our previous beloved prophets e.g Isa (Jesus). Now think this through, Allah the all knowing would know that if he did not appoint a successor the message will change like the message of Isa (A.S), so what does he do, the all knowing Allah knows that on the prophets last miraj, he will need to appoint a successor to prevent the message from being altered, so what does he do? he decides to appoint a leader from among the muslims, Allah decides the person most suitable to carry along the true message of Islam, who would be Ali ibn Abu Talib. The man who was born in the cleanest place (Kaaba), spent the most time with the prophet, was there with the messenger of allah the most out of all the sahabas, married to one of the purest of women (Fatima (A.S)) the prophets daughter. Was it all a coincedence?, or was it all of allahs plan? Ill end it with this. surah 8 verse 30
    ( when the faithless plotted against you to take you captive, they plotted and allah devised and allah is the best of devisers).
    no matter how many times the enemies of allah try to destroy Islam, true Islam will never perish but true islam will be practiced by few percentage of people. Dont spread hatred and remembet the time will come when Isa (A.S) and imam mehdi will bring the truth to the world. Be vary of the day oh fellow muslims, be prepared. Salam alleykum.

  37. Your simple and clarity explanation cleared all my doubts about shia and sunny muslims and know about great prophet Mohamed family .

  38. I have to say, this was pretty good. Granted, there are parts here and there that need a bit of revision, but I say this is about 94% accurate. Nice job Khan!!

  39. The main reason us(Sunnis) and the Shias feud is cause of Aisha how can you curse the wife of the prophet and the mother of the Muslims do we curse at Ali no we consider him as a tightly guided khalif

  40. Your information is from Sunni Reference.
    As much as we love prophet and his pure progeny we hate Omar, Abu bakr, ottoman, Mawiya and yazeed. That’s all

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