Racism, School Desegregation Laws and the Civil Rights Movement in the United States
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Racism, School Desegregation Laws and the Civil Rights Movement in the United States

This is Quentin, Tennessee Christmas fire 1956 Population 4000 That’s the high school basketball team in action against Lake City They lost 63 to 43 last year they don’t had a good football season this year in spite of all the recent couple The Clinton pep band plays rock around the clock and to all Outward appearances It’s just another night in just another, Tennessee community but main street has not always been be it there have been mobs in a square before the courthouse and Wyatt’s had to be broken up by the national Guard and a white Baptist Minister was beaten up on Broad Street The violence in Clinton was news all over America and much of the rest of the world But this is not a report on the national guard in Clinton Or the tanks in the street or the tear gas or the burning crosses, but rather an examination after the fact? filmed in Clinton between December 4 when the reverend Turner was attacked and now It is an attempt by see it now and the citizens of Clinton To explore the chain of events and emotions which brought violence and shame and hope to this town All the persons to be heard during a 60 minute report will be citizens of Clinton with the exception of Judge Robert L Taylor of Knoxville and John Kasper of Washington both active participants in the Conflict of the four thousand people who live in Clinton more than 3,700 are white and By tradition and custom most of them believe in separate school In nineteen fifty negro parents backed by the National Association for the advancement of colored people Brought suit against the Anderson County school system which administers Clinton High school? Asking that their children be admitted the courier [news] the Clinton weekly spoke for the community and support of segregation Editor Horace Wells or any newspaper is inclined to follow the thinking of the majority of the people in the community and this community and and I myself have Favoured segregation all down through the years [back] when this lawsuit was filed in 1950. We did everything we could to maintain segregation About trying to provide the negro students with good equal, but separate facilities, and that was why the community [Khaosan]? That’s where the community wanted it And that was editor of policy this newspaper the federal judge in this section of Tennessee in 1951 and now Is Robert L Taylor of Knoxville? the Anderson County School case was before my court about five years ago At that time I held that the colored children were not entitled to enter the Clinton High school Because they were being furnished equal but separate facilities At that time the equal, but separate facility [Dr.]. Was the law the negroes appealed a judge Taylor’s decision, and when the supreme court decision of May 1954 Ruled against segregation judge Taylor’s ruling was reversed on [January] 4 1956 the ordered [Anderson] County to comply It is hip team of this court that Desegregation as the high school students in that county should be effective by developed date and That a reasonable date should be fixed as one not later than the beginning of the fall term of the present year [of] Nineteen hundred and Fifty-Six accordingly on August 20 1956 Approximately seven hundred students registered for the fall opening without incident 12 of them were negroes Judge [Taylor] told them all to obey the law and there seemed to be no questions Then another voice was heard in Clinton John Casper an outsider a white supremacist told them that the law need not be obeyed our Failure today has been failing to attack failing to attack Failing to attack at every level and continuously But we in the white Citizens Council say now Yesterday today and forever as long [as] there is one living white man the United States the Supreme court is not the law of the land [that] [decision] is not the law now or Never will be never John Kasper first came to Clinton on August 25 and threatened to close up the school if desegregation continued Gasper had certain qualities of leadership and there were those [in] Clinton Willing to be led 103 Days later his Boast was back An organized campaign of picketing threats dynamiting and rioting that brought Clinton to the Brink of anarchy Gasper has been arrested plight, but continues to lead the battle against judge Taylor’s order School attendance shrunk by parents fear of violence was at times as low as 260 The pressure mounted on everyone the faculty the parents the student This is Jerry Shattuck Captain of the football team [and] an all-state guard talking to reporter Arthur morse in the gymnasium How did the students react the first day that? They negros came to class well, [I’d] like to say something about two three weeks preceding the time school starting you know Our school starts at the 1st of september And all through the month of august of course we knew we would have negro students in school That’s when we started, but no one said too much about it and no one seemed to [oppose] to it violently and Then I believe it was the Saturday before the Monday that school started this casper came into town And he started calling [people] up and stopping them on streets and trying to form pickets in front of school for Monday morning And then Monday morning when we did come to school we found that there were oh 15 to 20 people out there with pickets and The students most of them out [watching] and everything course. You know is something that they’d never seen before and Then when school started and the nigger students were inside no one was hostile towards them everyone seemed [offended] all the troubles seemed to be outside the school among the adults and I’d say six or seven of the students that casper had persuaded to picking Well of course you know that things kept adding on top of each other and pretty soon the National Guard came into town and of course things quieted down in a hurry then and then casper left and For about a month [there] month and a half everything was quiet and then this the local authorities wanted to try casper owned a Sedition and inciting a riot. I think it was and then he came into town for that trial [and] Then after that this intimidation within the school it’s happened, just recently started What sort of intimidation was they go down the halls and maybe push the negro student or I? Remember they threw some negro students books out into the rain one day And they poured some ink and eggs down into the negro students locker And I think they feel booked with a negro student in a study hall Jerry how do you personally feel about having negro classmates? well, I Didn’t ask for integration, and I wasn’t enthusiastic about getting it But the supreme court said [that] our high school should be integrated and so I Felt that I should do all I could to bring this court order about peacefully I think Our football coach said put it very well. He said all through your life You’re going to come up against things that you don’t like that he says you’re going to have to accept them anyway, and just make the best out of them that you can and That’s why I feel about it too, and I think that that’s the way most of the students take the [twelve] colored students who came down every morning from Bully hill also had a lot to get used to and then Monday morning When we start to school there were only a few people [around] and I thought maybe well They just here to be curious and they want to see us come in and if they would leave latest but then on the next day when things when more people came and A young boy started walking with signs I began to wonder and see well maybe they’re not going to accept this like I thought they were and on Wednesday morning I almost cried [for] back home because there were so many people and they look [so] Mainly they [looked] like they just wanted to grab ass and throw us out. They didn’t want us at all I could just see [their] hate in their heart and When we got inside the school Most of the children were very nice to us And then there was some you could tell [that] they didn’t want to scare. They finished a show you in a big [way] they are precise [Aa] person close [to] get out they all threw paper heads they shoved us and all a shoot a through trunk at us and Said all sorts of nasty things and it just made me feel bad And I couldn’t concentrate at all on my lessons But more than on any other individual the brunt of the pressure was exerted on Principal DJ, Britton, Jr. Who had fought the original battle for segregation and was now fighting to obey the law of the land? But Mr.. Britain as principal of Clinton High School Have you yourself suffered any personal harassment since the situation began? Umm..[yes], sir I can frankly say that I’ve suffered nothing but personal harassment And other people to my wife and teachers and students in the school or anybody that took a stand to obey the law Not necessarily that they agreed with it, but in any first for myself the first day and night my telephone ringing incessantly I guess my life was threatened 10 or 12 times by anonymous telephone callers who would all hang it up I I have Since had my phone number changed four times To keep from hitting these annoying calls I received letters many through the mail I received two today [one] of which was an unsigned letter of course which said [that] They felt that I was a low-down person and used other vile names and felt that someone should throw acid in my face or in the face of someone in my [family] and That I wasn’t fit to live now I have had a number [of] those kind of letters now those letters are always anonymous [they] never put a name on them and our teachers have been called names of all kinds and they have maked it made a department in the last few [weeks] to Do anything they could to make [it] [difficult] for the teachers? How would you characterize the attitude, but most of your pupils in this situation? They have stood advice loyally in every test that came up and We feel that they still do to a large degree. We believe like me we believe that there are maybe 40 students in the school who are creating the trouble that we have at the present [time] and subject to this or before this an organization a youth organization has been organized which was connected with the white citizens council and as their full backing in I understand has the same goals and These people and I have talked to several of them in school are encouraging other [people] if not doing things themselves To drive the negroes out of the school now when I talk to Mr. Casper at the beginning He wanted to know what I was going to do about getting niggers in those words out of Clinton [High] [School] And I told him that I had three choices that I could resign my job or I could stay with it and obey the law or I could do what he said and That I chose none of those except to abide by the law as it [was] stated But Mr. [casper] informed me that he was interested in only two things and those were one to drive the negro students out and two To get me out of my job, but here is a matter that is clearly a decision of the United [States] Supreme court and [we] do not feel That if we allow or teach our citizens to Disobey [this] law That they are learning the right principles assistantship in other words if they can do that They can violate any other law or any other decision in the country we’ve also been working at the problem of trying to get people to understand each other better and be more tolerant towards each other and one of the interesting Developments of this thing is to me has been that I’m now being accused of [being] a Communist [I] Was born in Tennessee I’ve lived my life in Tennessee, I attended, Tennessee schools I attended Merrill College in Tennessee to get my Bachelor’s [degree] and Master’s Degree at the University of [Tennessee] and If there’s anything about me that is communistic. I certainly do not know what it is, and it looks to me like [Rivet] some of the [Tax] Methods that are being used against the schools and against myself [lean] more in that direction anything that I have ever done or said Quite Frankly, I think I can see like many people in Europe filled Now wife and I since the opening of school are Always careful when we go home, we study the premises when we get in we lock the doors and get the lights on Any noise or any sound that occurs. We are always concerned at what it is there have been some nights when we have felt that it was The only safe thing for us to do was to stay out of town. We have visited our friends at times It is just a constant Thing which I’m sure It is part of the organization to where myself and my wife now It’s just presses you down every day lower and lower And to me it is an amazing thing There’s an American citizen Living Union and States It has to be subjected to this While the lowest citizens those who refused to abide or accept the law? continue to run free know this is not a true picture of America and Always not a true picture of the majority of the [people] vanishing kent But it is a picture [of] myself in Several other citizens in Clinton who have tried to abide to the law? The most talked about man in Clinton is John Casper of Washington DC John Casper still awaiting appeal of a one-year sentence is the self-appointed executive secretary of the seaboard white citizens council and a protege of Ezra pound Since his two arrests he is forbidden from interfering in Clinton But because it is impossible to measure his fully on the community without observing him in action We followed him to nearby, Kentucky on December 12 he was speaking to a white citizens council. Group in a fourth floor law The argument simply does not hold that the white race being a minority rather being a majority in the United States Should turn [over] to a group of people only removed from slavery 80 years and only removed from the jungle by a few hundred years Turned over to them the control of our entire civilization The basis of common law is a custom of the people if the custom of the people in Anderson [County] is to keep the races Separate then the supreme court law doesn’t mean anything. It doesn’t John Casper on the Ku Klux Klan in 11 Years in every Southern State the segregation laws We are fighting for today were written Every one up by the [cue] cross-Claim which saved the south and the Men who stood face-To-face [of] Chickamauga Braxton Bragg and General Thomas If they didn’t have a principle to fight and die [for] if they said well We’ll just let this thing go on Every single one of us here tonight would be Mulatos and not white everyone John Casper on the people of the south They underestimated the intelligence and the resistance power of the Mountain folk down here in Tennessee and Kentucky They underestimated that they thought Well, maybe they were dealing Where the Group of Hillbillies rednecks crackers? but those are the real people the united States make no mistake about and those hillbillies and crackers as Billy Branham said pure white people living in the face [of] the earth anywhere and the strongest Among them are men who get on their knees and pray every Sunday and they pray to They pray hard they believe in that bible, and they believe in Jesus Christ Mr.. [Caspar] tells of his Clinton Adventure when I was in Charlottesville I saw a little piece in the Charlottesville paper. Which said [that] integration was a [comer] in Tennessee for the first time the first school Clinton High school it happened to be just a day away, [I] Want to find out how the folks felt about it? I didn’t [think] they were for it, but I didn’t tell them anything about that. I just went door-to-door I showed him a picture of a nigger soldiers kissing some white girl Probably all seen that picture Army in the fort MCCLellan, Alabama some say it’s Germany doesn’t make any difference They’re still niggers in American Army uniforms kissin white girls then make any difference was Germany or Alabama being done wrong now I Showed him the picture and niacin [they] knew brought the niggers blowing the school the next day and they said They knew about it. They heard something about it, or they didn’t hear about some of them hadn’t even heard about it. [I] Asked them how they felt about their and they said I’m again What can we do about? Nothing, so [I] told them something about picketing How labor unions operate I? Told them to be down at the school the following day Now Monday morning. I would be there with them and we ticket and we discussed this thing with a local official We’d find out. What if anything could be done about it? John Casper on politicians what we are trying to do is regain local control of local affairs and It is local government Local corruption we must deal with first you can hardly expect to have a choice between [a] hollow pumpkin in [a] hopeless the [Challah] pumpkin or nepal [who’s] in the [white] [house] now and The man who ran against them in the recent election national election two men both of them Dedicated to stupidity and treachery both of them doesn’t mean a thing either one of them you compare them to the Patron Saint of the Republican or democratic [party’s] Jefferson or or Lincoln or any of those people why these men are nothing? Our president today They’re just sworn enemies of the American Republic sworn enemies of the Constitution Do everything they can their power to destroy it have consistently for 35 years Each each and every one of them John [Kasper] on the Supreme Court the idea is Clear I think in everybody’s mind That the right aim of law is to prevent coercion either by Force or by fraud and the supreme court decision is exactly Precisely fraudulent precisely coercive But the supreme court is in there for life and the whole federal judiciary is in there for life And there is nothing you can do about impeachment is silly. [I] mean it just it’s so hard to accomplish that Probably easier to assassinate me [Supreme] [court], we know they’re communists. We know that to combine nine men in the supreme court. Don’t make one good Civil Claims judge But yet on the other hand combined. They make one of the most deadly Communists Hydra head Monsters we’ve ever known But I’m absolutely confident. We are going to destroy that do I Say integration can be reversed it can be stopped anywhere Provided an attack is made at every single level But meetings of the County court are attended that the constant self-same demands are made that people people keep hitting the judge Who made the [original] ruling that pressure tremendous pressure is brought to bear on that school principal? On the school board on the local newspaper, or whoever it is it happens to [be] responsible? There’s no sense any longer of Killington senator So-and-so Or [president] or the president or the supreme court [judge] it got to be a pressure down [here] which is More or less like a lit stick of dynamite, and you throw it in there laughs let them catch it And then they can do what they want with it, but let them worry about at nine [o’clock] on the morning of December 4 1956 was conceivably the darkest hour of the worst day in [Clinton’s] history The reverend Paul Turner a baptist was beaten up after escorting six negro youths to school There were witnesses it was a it was a horrible thing and I thought they were actually killing him blood was streaming Down his [face] and even it. Just looked that blood was running out of his eye [I] asked someone in the group. Just anyone to help him and when there was no response I Went to him and tried to assist him by pulling some of the men’s arms for around his face when all the time the men In this group who were standing around were screaming kill him and that’s exactly what I thought They were going to do I certainly don’t consider that it was An act of bravery it was just a matter of the right or wrong thing to do and I did what I thought [was] right and I’m Putting on ashamed of the fact that I did it’s just that I’m ashamed really for the people of printing that it did happen In such a nice town first. It’s not people live Reverend Turner is 33 [years] old I spent all of his life [in] Tennessee for [about] five days these negro students having of course the legal right to attend Clinton high school had stayed home because of harassment and hindrance and heckling and threats upon their lives and incidents that actually would make anybody scared I Chose to take such a stand on this Moral principle that as long [as] the law is the law as it [is] in our land and As long as they did personally choose to come to Clinton High school They’re legal right that [they] had a moral right to attend on heckled and unhindered and on arrest It was [this] that prompted men to accompany them Though there were quite a few hecklers. We made our way [to] the high school building without any overt incident when I emerged from the school building about five or ten minutes later the [hecklers] were still there and they heckled me personally about [300] yards away from the High school we were far away from Where the policemen were doing their duty of course in front of the high school? one of the citizens [Council] members had stationed himself with about three of the men on the corner as I made my way to that corner. They jumped me I? retreated across the Street Bob Street of Clinton Trying to keep him at arm’s length While the other fellows were trying to surround me and to hold my arms and get me stationary for the beating I Retreated all the way across the street trying to avoid any incident finally found myself pretty well backed up against the Bishop building on the other side of the street I knew then that I had [to] do something and [it] was at that time also that one man successfully held my arms down and Allowed the number one Man of their gang to land a pretty good blow upon my nose it was at that time also that I realized I had to defend myself in some way and [so] I took off after the Man, who? had slugged me pinned him against a car and Immediately about eight to ten people were on [our] backs after a while when the police arrived Everybody scattered pretty much. We came up from our position bending over I took a hold of the two fellows that led the attack one in one hand one in the other and Shoved each of them into the arms of a policeman and from there they took them on over to the police station I Retreated into a doctor’s office But everyone did not applaud reverend Turner’s act which coincidentally occurred on the same day [that] Clinton was electing a new mayor James Meredith a grocer running for Mayor with the backing of the white Citizens Council was badly defeated Claims that the REv Run’s action may have swung the election to his opponent my name’s James P murder Farm operator, the City food Market in Clinton, Tennessee I was in this Mayor’s ratio, December the 4th 1956 which I was defeated Well about the election. I think [there’s] [a] lot of misrepresentation a lot of it start here in this Clinton current news Which is a local weekly newspaper here I’ve been here a resident of this [County] around 2000 about in 20 years [where] he had representatives if I might have been Jesse James or somebody just come in here on a horse [rode] [into] [town] got old which that was untrue I’ve been here on this street for about 20-some years operating a grocery store. They made it out to be segregation against integration as For me. I’m right there 95 percent. I’d say the people here in Anderson County I am against integration of of course we believe in negro Having equal rights equal education and equal facilities but we think he should have them in their own place as for being endorsed by the white Citizen Council as Everybody knows I came out in this race on mon as my friends came in the store here and in case To run this mayor’s race. I was running a good race and this Mayor’s race up until the morning before the polls open while this minister He went up on the hill to buying the niggers down to school minute do you meditate to that? Why the stuff will I hear started down? Some war in the [lore] in Town That was a proximate said by [10] Ms before the polls open as to whether or not that was political I don’t know mom’s done Was that [nigger’s] wasn’t supposed to come school at morning? But I figure I’ll come back and either [2] or [4] years from now and win in this Mayor’s race There were other merchants involved and some were losing customers because they stood by the court order This is our g Krosno Chairman of the school board I’m sure there’s no doubt in your mind mister my official connection with [the] dairy company as president of large premium corporated We [too] have heaven threats for carnival product in a number of instances We have lost accounts. Which we have served 10 for 15 years as a result of [my] being a member of this particular school board But I would like to assure you as a faculty and my fellow members on the board if becomes necessary Me to make a decision as to whether I sell a [quota] [meal] or resign from the school board [I] would like to show you here now that I will [not] [serve] [a] [quarter] [mil] for will remain a member of the school board Also on December 4th the Principal’s wife was knocked down and several white and colored children were beaten The school board asked for federal protection and at 11:45 closed the high school until order could be restored Mrs., Eleanor Davis a mother and a teacher Explains to a pTa group what it was like we were stunned There were some who were jubilant sure they had wanted it to happen and They rejoice but now they didn’t have to go to school and They could keep other people from going to school who really wanted an education But those were few in number There were other students who were so stunned they didn’t know whether to leave or [not] going down the hall I found students crying I Found seniors who were bitter because they felt that they might not be able to graduate Course tension had been high and you can imagine the reaction [to] various reaction after the students left the faculty didn’t want to leave Somehow we just couldn’t leave We met together in a faculty room We felt the seating we felt as if we’d weighed the flag of surrender, and we did not to wave a flag of Surrender We didn’t want to admit that we couldn’t control the situation. [it] was not until the Acquittal of [Kasper] in our local [Criminal] [Court] and the [organisation] of the Youth Council That we began to have a breakdown within the school The members [of] the Youth Council were not all students But among those who were students We had some habitual troublemakers disciplinary problems students who? found it difficult to pass and some of the students who belong to the youth Council Were so ashamed of the fact that they had to belong that? [they] refused to wear their badges They had only joined at the insistence of their parents They refused to [participate] in any of the trouble [mates] I know Because I talked with it There are [a] few students who have been so sensitive to this situation to the things that they’ve heard on our scene on the outside that they have drawn within themselves and They’re not the same as they used to be. [they’re] afraid to express themselves and They’ve lost that happy carefree attitude of you Of course we hope that time will heal that and they will be [once] more They’re happy failed Now I don’t think anybody can say enough Concerning the courage of the negro students [themselves] who are [willing] [to]? face persecution in their hometown to [get] an education The majority of students, and I do mean a majority have undergone this crisis with great courage and faced it intelligently Trying to be courteous and helpful at all times and I think these students have grown up a little bit as a result That Sunday with the [school] still closed and the FBI still in town Reverend Turner faced his all-white congregation for the first time since his controversial act the bible is without Precedent as a book and I personally have no fear that it will ever be superseded But many have tried to misuse the bible trying to justify some low standard of conduct By the very bible that they profess to love and by the book that never compromises with sin with pride with prejudice or with hate Billy Graham tells the Following Story shortly after the Civil [war] in a very fashionable church in Richmond, Virginia There [interred] a negro man one Sunday morning, when communion was being served He walked down the aisle and took his place at the altar to partake of the elements of the Lord’s supper There was a rustle of anger that swept through the congregation sensing this delicate situation a distinguished gentleman stood up and Walking [down] the aisle. He took his place by his colored brother Immediately his magnificent example Swept over the spirits of the rest of the people in that congregation, and they followed him [to] the altar taking their place there, too This man was none other than Robert ely My friends we have been too far away from God when mobs are able in our land to flout the law The tragic result is a Cicero, Illinois or a phoenix City, Alabama Here in Clinton. We are not especially Against integration we are not especially against segregation, but we are positively and definitely Against the disintegration of our community and our body politic that we cherish above all things Realizing that where our energy prevails none of us has anything of any value and none of us has any freedoms anymore and Now we realize more clearly than ever before that it is Christ or Chaos May we pray Principal Britain had invited the County attorney [Eugene] [Joyce] to tell the student body what the law expected of them I? Am here this morning in my official capacity as County attorney to tell you what in the future the board of education and this faculty will expect of you as Students, it is [not] my intention to tell you what to think nor it is my nor is it my desire [to] tell you what to believe but It is my [duty] to tell [you] how to act in the future so long as you are students at Clinton High School to my knowledge never in the history of American education Has it been necessary? To read an instrument such as this [to] [a] specially called student assembly I have been asked now to read to you this injunction from the United States District Court of the Eastern District of Tennessee Northern Division And this far is it appearing from Sworn petition? But even before the school had been reopened that the long arm of the federal law had taken over U.s. Marshals had moved into Clinton and arrested 16 men and women accused of violating judge Taylor’s injunction Their arraignment took place in nearby Knoxville on December 10 the same day school reopened here are eight of the defendants on their way to the courthouse [and] [here] is the voice of the County attorney reading the injunction that on august the 29th 1956 a crowd of people Agitated by one John casper attacked one of the negro children of the school that casper stated on various occasions that the court had no authority to issue the aforesaid order of Desegregation in the Clinton High school and that it should not be obeyed it Is ordered and decreed by the court that the effort mentioned persons their agents servants? Representatives attorneys and all other persons who are acting or act in concert with them? be and they hereby are enjoined and prohibited from Further hindering obstructing or in any wise interfering with the carrying out of the [aforesaid] order of this court or from thickening Clinton High School either by words Or acts or otherwise The young woman under arrest is Mrs.. Ellen nelson daughter of clem Dishman Reporter morse talked to Dishman at his home on College Hill This is the phlegm Dishman who’s lived in Clinton for 20 years? has his own garage downtown Clem what do you think about the situation here in Clinton way? I understand it is a My daughter and the rest of these folks here Will sign [up] to be a witness in this? Little case here the city of priors are fighting inside [the] corporation They gather them up, and they take them over to Austin they put them in put them in jail over Even cutting our daughter in there with I think is either six or seven Criminal women where I look at it just in the bullpen And I don’t can’t see nothing far about that you see what I what what needs to be done way. I look at now These there’s only about six or eight of them here. It goes to school. I think they claim these eight. What [cutting] them people just Go to some other [stew]. [they] got a cutter school yet nozzle, and then Anderson County Offered [they] the two issues frank Shabazz ranch the gas they even wind up one foot enough to furnish a colored driver They [ask] for colored driver We hear they’re Just before the pastor went up on the hill to lead them all to die the bus they didn’t notion to going that much notion To go on well. He goes up and caused all this trouble see the pastor of the first Baptist church Bald hanger goes up on the hill over here leads the [colored] [all] puts the minuscule goes over town in has his back I Thank the supreme court when they ruled that the health segregation ever were I Think they’re trying [to] mist off the legend shortage where look at it now I don’t I don’t know too much about over the if it’ll work in one place. It’ll work in another you’re working all You take Justin and I’m in outfit or whatever you might want to call it Well over in Russia. They got the same thing over we understand to get the same nine Lulululu for that kent I don’t think that’s what I think that’s calmness. We’re doing [dennis] now I’ll tell you what I think about that’s just what I think about see what [I] mean, you know well, what do you think about? [about] [John] [Kerry], I think John Casper’s real man. I Think I think you kind of got him under a bad deal this year in the base [stepped] myself now I’m just telling from a personal self, so you’re thinking That’s what I’ll think about [casper]. They don’t think he’s firing man, [nowhere] He just woke us up around here, and then people around here this German twee living under the way. I look at it But he just won’t fess up to the fact that we’re just living on anything mark anybody might want to do around here this newspaper Over here wells out here to inspire on that stand [over] [I] said he putting that paper what he thought the county needs to know the man runs the paper out here in this town Thanks very much, Mr.. Dishman appreciate your talking you’ve Got a match good Fishman’s daughter is no longer in Clinton High school because her father doesn’t want her in a desegregated school Joanne Allen’s father has withdrawn her for a different reason They’re getting out my name is Herbert Allen, and I’ve lived in Clinton for 24 Years and [I] found it to be a nice little town to live in very peaceful very quiet We never had any trouble in this little town thing like this happens [sometime] we say overnight, but this thing is to be and quite natural some Doesn’t think it should be? but God said he created all [men] equal and all men alive and so therefore none of us stands above the other person in yards sight and We as a negro race we are only in Clinton Tennessee abiding by the supreme court ruling that we’d [sent] our children to the high school in Anderson County We haven’t broken in law we had went against the court ruling but we Leave in now for the Los Angeles, California, not so much [soars] because of this situation, but that I might better myself And that Joanne might have a little bit more freedom in her school activities and in her career doing all the excitement all [the] things that the people are doing I was able to accomplish something I made two a’s and [a] [b] and the only grade grade it was [a] C Which isn’t very bad, but I wish it had [been] an a or b one um My teachers were [very] proud [of] me and my parents were too because they thought I did well even through all the strain that We did have to go through because sometimes I couldn’t keep my mind on my [lesson] for thinking about the people on the outside But they were thinking [up] And we’re not leaving here with hatred in our hearts against anyone even those who was against – we do not hate those people because we realized that those people just misled and They was trained and brought up the way that way yes. Why did they were never one able to understand? Clinton High school resumed four days ago after the scheduled Christmas recess with 655 students enrolled There were no incident some say that the worst is over That although there is still little enthusiasm for desegregation There is now a strong will to comply with the law There are those in Clinton who say the big change came when the federal marshals and the FBI moved it? others among them Editor Horace Wells Claimant was reverend Turner’s beating Another thing that has come about hey, I think this is largely due [through] the attacked on Paul Turner the other day was that many of us had stood by Unwilling to stand up for integration and yet Also, unwilling to violate the law and when [Paltin] was attacked the the feeling of the community was more less solidified No, [male] words could have done it it took some kind of action a heroic action Something are the this being that was administrative alternate to bring us? To the point where we were willing to stand up and say now we are not going to put up with being pushed around anymore [we] believe in law and order, [and] that’s what we want that’s what we’re going to have and That’s the reason that the people were willing to go to Knoxville and and put them out of a federal judge [tale] and say now We want this order enforced The trial of the 16 Clinton Defendants is set for January 28th There are those who [questioned] the [legality] of the injunction? including the atTorneys [general] of three Southern States and a few colonists the courts will decide as for Clinton a joint meeting of the junior and senior Chambers of Commerce unanimously adopted a resolution upholding the desegregation law In the last four months we’ve [had] a lot [of] controversial Worldwide, publicity on Clinton most of which has been brought about by [a] very small minority of the local citizens most of us are peaceful law-abiding home loving people that whore violence and Mob action We believe in our government in our laws and the justices handed down by our courts even though [our] government and our laws And our courts don’t always pleased us as individuals We as Americans and citizens believe first in both in personal freedom This personal freedom is not the freedom to form mobs and take the law into our own hands But freedom to think for ourselves And if an issue doesn’t please us to use every legal peaceful means at our command to change the issue The Bill of rights is also a bill of obligation I Read that somewhere the other day, but it’s good it fifth Today, we’re not concerned with whether you are for or against segregation And we’re just concerned with whether or not you’re for [or] against law and order That was Clinton and the law an examination after the fact of what happened in Clinton, Tennessee This was in no sense an effort to examine the whole complex problem of segregation as such In other communities both the problems and the solutions may not be identical to those that were reached in Clinton, Tennessee Now for see it now good night, and good luck

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99 thoughts on “Racism, School Desegregation Laws and the Civil Rights Movement in the United States

  1. Blacks are God choose people we are the people of the book we are the lsrealites. Read Duetreronmy. When they put us in slavery they stole our name the bible, culture we could not read or write for 300 years we forgot who we was. We are more than negroes we are the Hebrews, the devil hate that we are God's beloved he try to keep us down. God says he has love us and have an everlasting covenant with us (love for us). The world gonna find out the truth. Look it up. Jungle my ass we had the first colleges hospitals laws and civilization. The Greeks stole everything we had and called it their own. Egypt was black nation that had another black nation in slavery. The people and prophets of the bible are black. Our History was whitewash. JESUS is black and so is his people. The fake white Jesus the Catholic spread around the world is the son of a pope painted by Michael Angelo they were lovers his name is Ceaser Borgia. The Jews are culture vultures who helped orchestrate our slavery and lost identity…..get the boom, A.D.O.S. When they took blacks out of west Africa they took scientist, kings, lawyers, astronomers, engineers, mathematicians, etc. We are great. Jeremiah 16:19

  2. Racism is not in America in Vietnam too today many Montagnard indigenous students graduates from high school or college no job none of us work with Vietnamese government or any job .

  3. The dum ass white people don't have no class white have in sex with they own family they are the biggest cowers their is now they all dead white ugly poor piece of trash

  4. I can’t believe people really had this kind of mentality back then! Bunch of ignorant and uneducated people who felt more than others, and still called themselves Christians ! Thank God that’s over, I don’t complain living in this era at all, history’s still being made, getting better each day!
    Love one another! ♥️

  5. Look at almost all the inner cities now. The same thing happens in the black community as does the whites, the Hyspanics, the Asians. People all over the world eventually end up staying or living with the same race.

  6. They are the devils white devils they come to steal kill and destroy and soon will get what they truly deserve

  7. Where were the Latinos in all of these? Were they hiding until the blacks won or were they considered white back then?

  8. I was born in Africa, and always every time I see African Americans, I don't see him/her just as black but hero, they've been through a lot of racism and discrimination.

  9. Aot TALK about this ISSUE in AMERICAS HISTORY without the TRUTH about in this NATION'S HISTORY . The PUBLIC EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM and the PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM in this NATION have been DIFFERENT most do understand the LAW which COVERS PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS and neve COVERED PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS even under the DOCTRINE of SEPERATE but EQUAL. PEOPLE of COLOR ( have always been able receive a EDUCATION in this NATION in the PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM even when they could ATTEND PUBLIC EDUCATION SCHOOLS . The MILITARY SCHOOLS ,the IVY LEAGUE SCHOOLS always ACCEPTED BLACK AMERICANS when the PUBLIC COLLEGES could not and would not . There those need to these FACTS straight before telling them . It's HISTORICAL DOCUMENTED and VERIFY ,has been for TEARS and TEARS.

  10. I understand know that there were a lot of people that are white at this civil rights era that are true heroes for they themselves put there own lives in danger by standing up for what's right true heroes very touched by this act of heroism

  11. These days Casper would have a talk show on a conservative radio station. All about states rights, berating the Supreme Court, even suggesting assassinating the president. Today white Evangelicals have joined the racists and see nothing wrong with those that marched in Charlottesville.

  12. If dark skin makes you dumber, then when white folks tan do they lose IQ points the darker they get? Just wondering.

  13. RACISM is [ IGNORANT ]
    There is only
    one race, and its
    [ THE HUMAN RACE ] it's all about [ RESPECT ]

    [ GOD ] will let you get by – but you won't get away… Ijs

  14. These people are just plain DISGUSTING! SERIOUSLY! The way they have their beliefs, is just from passing down the stupidity, though. Many of them, it's not really fair to call them racist pigs. They just learn it from their pig parents, so? How it doesn't come to mind that these people they try so hard to oppress are only that way, or live that way for reasons that fall directly upon their racist pig shoulders! NO OTHER REASON!

  15. Economics Is Capitalism

    Capitalism is the Economic System of Racism and white supremacy. It describes the means which whites target another group's wealth and systematically pillage it for themselves.

    Money is an artificially created medium of exchange designed to stop people from concentrating on self-sufficiency, productivity, developing expertise, and advancing one's natural gifts and talents. Quoted by that Naturally  Intelligent God Gifted African/Aboriginal from soufeast D.C.

  16. Jeez….Anderson had a stack of legal books behind him towering to the heavens….and the heavens answered…."and he who lives in heaven answered back….your equal but separate stance is Pharisee talk…. Thank the Lord.

  17. I could just see the hate in their hearts… this came from the home parents and conversation at the dinner table. We must do better.

  18. There's a history lesson here, walk with me!! They changed it from NEGROS to African Americans here's why in 70 A.D the ROMANS chased the real (HEBREWS) JEWS out of Jersusalem for the last time, they fleed into W.Africa to blend in in W.Africa was a place called NEGROLAND in NEGROLAND was akingdom called the "KINGDOM OF JUDAH" thats why they stop calling Negros (NEGROS) because they didnt want you to know your from ROYALITY your Jacob name changed to Israel the "Apple of the most high eye they erased you map of W.Africa 1747-1777 its all about you (NEGROS) and they know it there trying to keep YOU from knowing it…

  19. Integration was forced on people by the point of a gun. Diversity and race integration lowers the standard of schools and the USA.

  20. Added to all of the integration and diversity they changed the immigration laws and now today you see the chickens coming home to roost. Now we have millions of illegals in the USA bringing about destruction to cities on welfare living off of the people who work hard for their money. Do u like the results?

  21. And who are the Christian terrorists? These Civil Rights Era documentaries always reinforce why I gave up Christianity….a religion of HATE and violence.

    I wish more Black folk would wake up and give up this toxic hypocritical religion that refuses to recognize our humanity.

    I don't celebrate no damn Christmas or any Christian holiday—Threw every decoration the fuck out !!

  22. They say “get over it” and “no one alive today experienced slavery” but forget Jim Crow was going on 50 years ago and most of the people who experienced it is still alive including the racist who are probably your parents and grandparents today

  23. Stop thriving off this shit different people walk the earth today live for today and the future

  24. Give the negro freedom and he will take your white bitches.

    Joe Rogan was banned from YouTube 4 minutes ago.

  25. You got to be a idiot ,to send your melanated kids to these people schools ,restaurants that hates us.Only a fool would let their enemy teach them.These half humans showed us they hated us by sending national guards,firehouse ,you name it.I just don't know what our people was thinking about integrating with these demons.

  26. I wouldn’t even want my child to attend this school..Let em have it..They keep saying negro as if we’re some kind of animal..God Never sleeps

  27. There are so many different races/cultures on this planet. So many amazing tribes of people. It’s what makes the world so beautiful!No one has the right to make any race feel as if they don’t belong here! Def. don’t have the right to hurt anyone! We are Gods creation! Everyone will be before him someday for their judgement! God Bless!

  28. Just hateful and they have taught this to their children and grandchildren just sickening sick and evil it in their dna

  29. They'll get up & go to church every Sunday, yet evil feels their hearts. Using the machinery of the state to oppress others. I wonder how they'll like to be on the other end of the spectrum.
    Give it up to those blacks & whites who fought hard to dismantle this apartheid system.

  30. Racist whites are a hot topic but hard to find .Create more hoaxes or watch this ! IT HAS ACTUAL WHITE RACISTS ! IT ALSO HAS REAL BLACK VICTIMS ! W O W ! THATS WHAT WE HAVE BEEN LOOKING FOR !!!!!!

  31. Not everyone is racist. As long as evil is in this world sin will be in this world and hate, That’s why we need Jesus. Till we turn to him as a nation we will always have hate.

  32. Racism comes in all colors. Blacks are racist also, so are Hispanics and Whites because people feed into the media and lies. We are not segregated anymore. We all have rights. So it’s time to forgive the past and move on.

  33. Casper @21:00 is pure mountain trash and looks mixed…..black or Native American. Poor ignorant fool. Hope he's burning in hell right about now and anybody else like him.

  34. Yep. Look at all those racist white liberal Democrats. They've always been racist. The party of the KKK. The big plan as I call it. To use planned parenthood and food stamps and welfare to control the black population. That is what white racist liberals have been doing for decades.

  35. Damn that Casper man around the 25 min mark is a terroristic kkk grand wizard without the sheets wtf…

  36. We see this same shit with American Conservatives in todays society. With their hate for everyone that isnt a white "legal" citizen

  37. It is one of the worst mistakes in the history of the USA to force race mixing in the public schools and colleges and society, force intergration has nearly ruin this country,racial segregation is base on the laws of God for he separation the races,most people will segregated with their own kind or kindred if given free choice.

  38. It's the black students that's having the brunt issues, why are they talking to the principal, I WANT TO HERE THE BLACK STUDENTS SPEAK, i don't want to hear the watered down version of what happened that these white men are talking about???

  39. Kentucky here, i went to school from 1965 to 1977, played a lot of baseball. Mr Casper is out of his mind

  40. Look at the schools now, kids are given mind control behavior drugs, sex birth control, that we came from monkeys, forced Muslim religion, and gay life style. And let's not forget the drugs, weapons, metal detectors, and security guards or actual police presence, with God and the bible kicked out, so much for progress………

  41. Was it not black people that sold there own people to the whites? Was it not black people killing white people in Africa? To pretend that they are moral superior is bullshit. Imagine if they own black people didn sell them out they would’ve have been worse off then they were back then.

  42. OUR natural enemy in spirituality, and science. Neverthess, evil is taught, but by who is what we must ask. That's what makes the difference which is their nature which keeps US at difference. I understand that not all whites have the same hatred in their hearts, but the majority deep down inside if the the world could leap to the 70's on back, would ride out with the evilness of mankind. The blackman and woman are the ALPHA and the OMEGA. The only one to have always had a problem with TRUTH, is the whiteman, and that's the TRUTH !!!

  43. John Casper, a primitive ignorant of the origin on modern human, shows his historical ignorance by forgetting the ALL humans have a common ancestor, Homo sapiens, who lived around 400.000 years ago in Africa; we were then all colored people and hybridation, thru the passage of time, lead to different "types". This origin was scientifically proven in 1980 by the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. The concept of "Races" is a societal construction to justify certain purposes too cmplex to describe here. Casper, you are a disgrace to Homo sapiens and to all actual living humans.

  44. the blacks are trying to bring back segregation today which is a good idea for people that don't want to be around each other because of race and we could also have the diversity places for the people that want to be diverse I see nothing wrong with blacks wanting to be with blacks and whites one of the other whites it's a natural instinct to do so

  45. OMG I wish I was Born back in the 1930's like my Dad who passed last year…They were the Best of times in America..then came the 1960's and Destruction of America Started….Fast forward to 2019 and NOW Look at Every Big City..they've been DESTROYED !! MAGA !!

  46. Another clip for my "Radical Right-Wing CHRISTIAN Terrorism" playlist.
    Remind me again who the violent and racist party is, Trump chumps.

  47. "The supreme Court is not the law of the land, and never will be". It's clearly a statement of an "outlaw" man. These clan men don't see themselves subject to the jurisdiction.

    He makes me wonder, what is the law of the land, according to this guy?

    Criminals with no respect whatsoever for the laws is kind of dangerous to have them walking around.


    The only lasting and permanent solution to the race problem that has plagued this country for so long is complete separation of the black race from the white race in America, that way the two races can live apart from each other, since we certainly don't get along peacefully while we are together. We as black people in America don't want segregation nor do we want integration. The black masses want complete separation. In short, we don't want to be integrated with white folks, we want to be separated from the white folks. Integration has been a failure cause it forced people by law to do what they did not want to do in the first place. And wherever you have token integration, you don’t have anything but a substitute for integration so there’s no real integration anywhere in North America—North, South, East, or West.

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