Let’s Talk Teaching: GIS in the Classroom
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Let’s Talk Teaching: GIS in the Classroom


[music plays] >>Dagni Bredesen:
Alright, characteristically starting right on the dot,
but that’s also because some of us have to leave
early to get to classes. I am very pleased to welcome
you, even those way, way, way, people
in the back, hi. [chatter] I would encourage you
to come forward. You can leave when
I do, at like 10 to one. I first want to thank Barry
and Karen for organizing this wonderful collaboration,
interdisciplinary collaboration between the GIS
Center and Faculty Development, and all the other faculty from
different colleges that are also part of this presentation,
and all of you who have come. This is a really exciting
opportunity to shift our thinking about teaching,
about space, and about interactions with students. Faculty that I’ve talked to
that are using mapping in their classes in different ways are
finding the students incredibly responsive to this, and so
I’m looking forward to learning more myself. I also want to thank, as
always, Krishna Thomas and Wanda Kay Robinson for handling
logistics and so much else. Can we give them a
round of applause? [applause] And I do want to also
announce that we have some upcoming events. April Sixth we are working,
Faculty Development, Film Studies, and Making
Excellence Inclusive work group are hosting the
movie, the documentary “Lives Worth Living,” with
also the Office of Student Disability Services. That’s a documentary that will
be showing in the Doudna Fine Arts building lecture hall
from four to six, April Sixth. And afterwards, we will have a
Skyped-in conversation with Judy Heumann, who is on the
President’s Advisory Council on Disabilities Studies. So, it’s a wonderful
opportunity. Then April Ninth, we’re
following on with that, Office of Student Disability
Services are hosting a panel, “Tried & True: Universal
Design in the Classroom.” That’s April Ninth from
11:30 to one p.m. in this very same room. And then April 10th,
True Stories: Students with Disabilities from 10 to
11:30 in the Effingham Room. And we did this a couple of
years ago, and it was a really powerful opportunity to hear
what students have to say about moving through the world and on
this campus, in their classes when they are also
working with disabilities. So, I encourage you to come
to that or get the word out, and tag somebody else to
come if you can’t make it. Anyway, welcome to the GIS
Center and to all of you here. Thank you very much.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Thank you. And I just want to
reiterate to thank Dagni, and Wanda Kay and Krishna.>>Dagni Bredesen:
Dagni!>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Dagni, I’ve been saying that wrong for a
couple years now.>>Karen Gaines:
You’re pretty much in the dog house now. lLaughing] >>Dagni Bredesen:
I forgive. I may not forget.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
They have been absolutely instrumental on various
occasions with us, as we’ve organized this. So, my name is Barry Kronenfeld. I’m an assistant professor in
the Department of Geology and Geography, and last year I
was also brought on with Karen Gaines as co-director
of the GIScience Center. And one of our objectives, that
Karen has been pushing for a long time, is to reach out
to other faculty on campus, and to try to find ways that we
can help you guys to bringing a little bit of GIS into your
classroom, into your research, anyway that
you can find it useful. And one of the reasons is we
get a lot of your students, and I love having students
from different departments. They always bring some really
fresh ideas as to how they can use the mapping technologies. But now, we also want to
reach out to you guys, as well. And so, we’re hoping through
this event that we can, number one, sort of illustrate
a broad spectrum of ways that GIS is used in different
types of applications. And also, number two, hopefully
to get some feedback from you guys as to how we can reach
out to you and make it easier for you to maybe implement some
of the ideas that you see, as we’re going through
the presentations. Okay, and so, this is the
GIScience Center web page. We do have a web page now. It’s still rudimentary, but
we have some links on there, in terms of the classes we
teach, the degree programs that we have, and contact
information, as well. We’re going to get links up
there for software, so that you guys know how to
access software. A lot of the stuff that we’re
going to be showing today, though, is, we’re using
web-based software, as well. There’s so many different
options for using GIS, that it’s easier
to get into now. And rather than me talking
to you for this entire hour and a half, or me and Karen
talk, what we’re going to do is we have several other faculty
that have graciously agreed to talk about how they’ve been
using GIS in the classroom. Newton Key from history, Dave
Viertel and Chris Laingen from geology and geography, and
also Jill Deppe from Biology. And I think this, I’ve
skimmed some of their talks, and it looks like there’s
some really interesting, a lot variety of ideas that
are going to come out, so I’m really looking forward
to what they have to show. And so, I guess we’ll
just jump right into it. And this is approximately the
outline, but I didn’t put Karen’s initial talk on here.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
We’re going to start off–>>Karen Gaines:
I guess it’s there, right?>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Yeah– with Karen.>>Karen Gaines:
There you go. Not your grandfather’s GIS. [laughing] Well, and forgive me for any
type of technology issues that we have. I wanted to bring my Mac and run
this off a Mac to show you that the sort of stereotype that
a GIS can only be done on a PC, and it can only be done from
this mega computer, and you have to have multiple quantitative
degrees, or you cannot enter into this realm, is just untrue. Now, of course, just like in
everybody’s own discipline, there’s higher level
training that’s going to make you an expert. But that doesn’t mean you
can’t utilize this technology to bring it into your own
particular discipline. And that’s really the
scope of what we want to talk about today. It’s the scope of the center. I invited many graduate
students, I don’t see a ton of them here, but that’s
sort of what we want to do in the future. We’re going to do this year
after year after year, and bore everybody. But, so, because what we feel
is if our graduate students come in and undergraduates come
in and say, “Wow, I can really do this in my work,” then
they’re going to come to the professors who might be a little
bit curmudgeon about starting a new approach to
their research. So, it’s really through our
students that this will really become a success. So, as we move forward,
encourage your students to come talk to us because that’s
really our mission. Alright, so no, it’s not
our grandfather’s GIS. And so, what I want to do,
and again, forgive me for any technology issues here. Alright, so even this isn’t
your grandfather’s GIS anymore. So the original beast, right,
and I’ve given entire lectures of the history of GIS just
through Esri products. But usually, when people think
GIS, they think ArcGIS, ArcInfo, whatever you want to
call it, whatever you may have pulled in and pulled out,
and maybe some of you have no idea what I’m talking
about, and that’s fine too. This is the proprietary
software that, if you’re a GIS professional, you
have to learn, okay? And it is a company called Esri
out of Redlands, California. We teach using this software in
our introductory GIS courses. And like I said, in our
different degree programs, whether it’s through
geology/geography, the professional science
masters, the GIS option now in the MBA program, we’re
growing and growing, even with our public planning. Right, Rich? Is that what it’s
called, the certificate? Public planning. So, we really have a lot of
different components throughout the university that are
being trained as professionals. So, you will be
trained on this software. And there is a lot out there. If you are interested, obviously
I invite you to take any of the courses in
geology/geography, but also to acquaint yourself in terms of
the support and services, or actually, I think it’s
through products here that I was looking at. Solutions. I apologize here. Oh, training. So, if you do have students who
are interested a little bit about getting introduced to
the software, we do have this software now on campus
that anybody can use. So again, if you have
that desire– are you going to talk about that, on
how to get that software? I guess right now, if you’re
interested in getting ArcGIS into your classroom or onto
your computers, just contact one of us, and we’ll get you
where you need to be. But in terms, there are some
free training through ArcGIS that you can do if you’re sort
of interested to just sort of get started a little bit. So, if you went to esri.com
and you hit training, it sort of gives you all
those types of courses. But that’s not what we’ll talk
about today because we have a lot of training there, but maybe
some stuff that you don’t know. I’m going to start
with some web-based GIS. This is– I’m going to go here. This– actually, I’ll
start on a fresh page. This is something
called CartoDB. CartoDB. And CartoDB is a
web-based GIS, okay? And all this that I have right
here, hopefully we’ll sort of get onto our GIS page
so you can see. Anybody heard of CartoDB? Alright, very good. Maybe, maybe not. What about Open Street Map? Maybe? Okay, alright. Google Earth? Alright, okay. So, you’re familiar
with web-mapping, right? You’ve gotten directions, right? So, you’ve used a GIS in
some component, right? Have you been able to
follow those directions? Right, okay? So, but CartoDB is a real
nice one that I like because it’s useful, and it’s
pretty easy to get in. Let’s see, there we go. Alright, so this is CartoDB. CartoDB is free. It’s not open source. I’ll talk a little bit
about what open source is vs. free, right? You guys use free
stuff all the time, right? Anybody use DropBox? Alright, that’s free. Mendeley. We can go on and on and
on that’s out there, and they’ll charge you if you
want the full blown, right? But for your uses, you might
be able to get away with using CartoDB entirely for free, okay? And if you start really enjoying
it, you might want to pay whatever the user fee is. So, you can sign up,
make your own profile. And what’s nice about that,
just like DropBox or anything that’s web-based, you can access
it from wherever you are. And it’s pretty user friendly. I’m going to go to my account. So, typically, you sign in
just like anything else. I don’t think you can sign in
through Facebook, but you can sign in through your
Google account. So, it’s pretty
user-friendly that way. There’s me. I log in. And up will come my
databases, alright? This is really easy stuff. If you have, you can
use Excel, yeah? Can you? Okay. Right, then you can use this. You don’t even need an
X-Y location per se, okay? I mean, we’ve used GPS’s where
you get a lat/lon, right, or some sort of X-Y coordinate
that spatially reference. You can certainly use
that in your Excel sheet. But what’s nice about that,
that’s really nice because you can put that into any type of
GIS, but what’s nice about this is you have an address,
you have a zip code, okay? Very easily, it can do that
type of address matching for you for utilizable data. So, what am I going to show you
is something that we’re working with Mary H.P., is these were
admitted, if you see some names close your eyes, I’m going to go
really quickly through this. But here’s the Illinois
State Scholars, okay? And so, this was just an Excel
sheet that was given to me. And so, all I have really
here is where they’re from, what they were sort of
interested in, and I did an address matching here. You see these lat/lon’s. That was later on. It did the address matching
for me, then gave me those lat/lon’s, okay? So, you don’t need those. Alright, so don’t look at
anything you see there. And then, and we’re
going to have an intern working with Mary. And so, this is just an example. That map in the
background, it’s there for you. It just pulls all
that up for you. All I did was bring in the Excel
sheet that Mary H.P. sent us and said, “We have all these
scholars and we want to know, we want you to contact them.” Well, I wanted to see maybe
where are they from, and you can kind of
see here, Chicago. Well, we know we get
a lot from Chicago. But are there some other
areas that we don’t know about? And what this also allows you
to do is, I can play with my legends here. If you know SQL, which
you may or may not, you can play around with that. Maybe you have a student who
knows SQL, and if you don’t know what SQL is, go
ask your student. They might be able to tell you. But okay, and then there’s
Wizards, right? You want to look at it
clustered, you want to look at it choropleth, right? All sorts of stuff that
you can answer questions. You can do queries, like
any database you’ve ever worked with, and
now it’s spatial. Point and click, play
around, get information out. It’s out there for you. It’s very easy. Okay, you can bring this
in, you can, of course, bring it into your
D2L as a link. All these things are very
easy to engage your students very quickly. I’m sure, and we’ll sort of get
to this later if we have time, of examples that you might
be thinking of right now, that we might be able to pull
in and maybe jump start you. And if you maybe after this,
have, obviously we can talk. I just want to show you one
more data set here that I have. And like, for example, here,
these are some old data sets that I have back before
I wore nicer shoes. This is some stork data that
I had from Brunswick, Georgia where we used to go up in
small planes and follow them to their foraging sites. And so, as you see,
this is a temporal. So, it’s going through a
sequence here of where we followed the storks and
where they landed, right? So, you just have this time
sequence, in this case it was, I think it was date. It doesn’t matter,
same sort of thing. All it was was in that
legend, it made a time series. So, it can make pretty
cool– have you guys ever seen something like that
like on New York Times? Right, you know, this is what
they use. This is what they use. So, you guys who are maybe
from humanities and fine arts could probably make something
really quick that looks really, really nice, and it would
take us like months, years, or never, right? So, think about
those types of things. Alright, any other data sets. Alright, this was when Chris
Laingen and I went for some training, playgrounds
in New York City. Remember that one, Chris? Yeah, we spent awhile. So, that’s just another
example of a map that’s in the background there that is
just available to you, okay? And so, what we had to do in
CartoDB as our assignment, it was kind of tough being
students again, was to look at– these are for
handicap accessible, okay? So, we also had the Citibank
bike data as well, the bike rental stuff, and we
did some temporal stuff. So, there you go. It’s all free, you can
play around with it. I’m probably taking too long. I want to show you one
more, not on the CartoDB. But– are we here? Okay, this is– and do
we have– no, we don’t. There is, right, we talked
about Esri products. Alright, so that’s free. CartoDB is free. This is Open Source. Does anybody know
what Open Source is? The difference, right? So, people are allowed
to sort of add to that the source code, and
it is called QGIS. Anybody who is a Mac user
say, “I can’t do GIS because I’m a Mac user?” No, QGIS works on a Mac,
and it’s pretty stable on a Mac. And actually, I think that
sometimes it works better on my Mac than my PC. So, if you’re a Mac user and
you don’t want to go through the dual boot to get the Esri
product onto your Mac, or again, for us this is a very good
tool because we have international students. Or students that might leave
here and cannot access the Esri products, this is free. Just Google “QGIS,” it’ll get
you there and explain to you very quickly on how to get
it onto your machine. Again, is this the
industry software? No, but can you do maybe 90% of
your basic type of mapping? Absolutely, okay? It takes in the same
file format as ArcGIS, okay? And some others that
ArcGIS– I don’t know, GeoJSON,
does ArcGIS do GeoJSON? I can’t remember. So, there’s tools, it’s a little
bit different than ArcGIS. But, for example, when you
want tools they’re just plug-ins, okay? And the plug-ins– Uh-oh, we’re dual boot
here, you can’t see it. Just let me see if I
can pull this up. Okay, so I don’t know if
these sort of interest you accuracy assessment,
calculating areas, different types of buffers. If there’s something you
want to do, there’s a tool out there for you, okay? And the only way you do it,
you just type in “QGIS plug-in,” whatever subject you’re
interested in, out on the web, you probably will be
able to find something. If not, that’s something, again,
you can come to the GIS Science Center, and we can help you
find that sort of thing. All I wanted to show you
here is this is– if we had zonal– here we go. Here, this is just an example
of a county map. And if you go into the research
tools, I’m sure that sometimes you might want to generate
random points. that’s something that I could see any
discipline wanting to do, here’s just an example
of, boom, right? I’m going to generate 100
points, and I can stratify that, based on however I
want to do this. And I want to export that. It exports it as something
called a Shape File, which is your standard. I’ll just call this “Test,” I
save it, add this to my canvas so you can see it, alright. [unclear dialogue] Sorry. [no dialogue] Not sure, okay, did it do it?>>Barry Kronenfeld:
I think it added it the first time.>>Karen Gaines:
Did it? Okay, is that it, and I
just don’t see it? Okay, sorry. There we go, sorry. Yeah, so I just did this 100
random points, right? But that’s just one example of
something that you can do. Sometimes you want to see random
points vs. your regular points, those are
typical types of spatial. Yeah?>>Steve:
Can I ask a question about employing data sets
at this point?>>Karen Gaines:
Yeah, go ahead!>>Steve:
Okay, so we have a few different cool tools that we can use, but
in terms of identifying data to import into these tools, are
you saying that, I know that you said CartoDB
can take location identifiers, such as zip codes and
addresses, and so forth, as well as latitude/longitude
data points. However, what about QGIS or
GIS or one of the other ones that you mentioned, is it
possible to take basically a spread sheet or a tab,
or comma-delimited file, anything that has, as long as
there is a field that has some location data in it with that
zip code or address or lat/lon, it can read those.>>Karen Gaines:
It can. And as, the more advanced you
get, and if you need help there to georeference it a
little bit better, depending on, how are you going to use those
data with other types of maps, Is the question I would ask you. And so, if you want to use it
sort of within your own silo, it probably is fairly easy. If you now want to use it with
other data, you might need some help in what we call
georeferencing to get those all to kind of match up. Does that answer you question?>>Steve:
Yeah, it does. I guess another sort of
extended question to that is, you were talking about working
within your own silo. I mean, we may have our own
small or large spread sheets or data sets that we can
use, but where else can we find free data?>>Karen Gaines:
Yeah, no absolutely And I have, and I don’t want
to steal everybody’s time, and that’s kind of maybe come
to the center type thing, or the virtual center. Talk to me or Barry,
and then we will get you hooked up with somebody. Here’s something
called Natural Earth. There’s some data
sets right there. There’s a lot out there. It really just kind of depends
on what you’re looking for. There’s a ton, there’s a ton. So, but that’s sort of
the service aspect that we want to do. Here, come on up, Barry, we’ll
get the next person going. To help you find
what’s quality data.>>Steve:
I was hoping that you, should the center and the
library [unclear dialogue] can work together on [unclear
dialogue] clearing houses and things like that.>>Karen Gaines That
would be wonderful.>>Steve:
Through the center, as well as our [unclear dialogue]>>Karen Gaines:
Right, our web presence is not what it needs to be. That’s sort of our next
hurdle to go through. And going through the library
and the peak, and other aspects is just a no-brainer. We absolutely have to,
that’s the best way to do it. So, yeah, thanks, absolutely.>>Audience Member:
How would the U.S. Census do it? They have quite a bit–>>Karen Gaines:
They do. U.S. Census Bureau, NASA,
NOAA, those are the big government agencies. They adhere to the
federal standards. And then, there’s others that
we just have to sometimes double check or keep up with, so
yeah.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
I have a very crude website that has a list of a bunch of
standard sources that I point my students to, but it doesn’t
look very good right now. But maybe we can talk
about cleaning it up, and maybe the library can help
us to get something better as a go-to resource.>>Karen Gaines:
Alright.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
So, next up is Chris Laingen.>>Karen Gaines
This is hard for me. I’m going to sit here in
case you need anything.>>Chris Laingen:
My talk’s pretty simple. This is something that most
students probably learn in the first couple
of weeks of GIS I. It’s called doing a join. This will kind of come into
play, and will kind if build on the question that was asked
“where is their data?” This is an example of where,
there’s always data, the Census Bureau. I use the USDA Ag Census data
a lot for things that I do. This is data that doesn’t
necessarily have any lat/lon or X-Y coordinates built into
it, but there are a lot of data sets out there that are
at the county level or a census track level,
or you name it. An already established
geographic space that data is collected at normally umpteen
numbers of them here in the, United States, and world wide as
well, countries, territories, and things like that. So, there’s already somewhere a
data set that has a geographic space to it, and each one of
those geographic spaces has a unique identifying
attribute to it, okay? So, in this case, I’ve shown
you here a spread sheet data that I downloaded from the USDA
Census of Agriculture for 1925. Actually, I didn’t download it. I had to enter it all
in because in 1925, they didn’t enter a lot of stuff
into Excel spread sheets. But if we look at data sets that
exist, this is a county level data set of the United States,
you can download anywhere from many, many different
types of sources. Within this are the counties. So, each county. You know, GIS’s are nothing
more, really, than a way to take tabular data and show them
geographically in space, so each county has a unique
identifier, called a FIPS code. Anyone here familiar with what
FIPS codes are, other than that they’re a
unique identifier? I’m not either. They’re five-digit numbers,
stands for Federal Information Processing Standard. Just a way for the government
to say this county has this number. It’s unique, okay? So, you can take these FIPS
codes, if the spatial data set you have has a FIPS Code
associated with each county. So here’s my tabular data,
there’s a FIPS code here for Adams County. We go back to the spatial
data, that has a FIPS code column, as well. So, what this basically does is
it takes non-spatial data that you might have or might be able
to download or find somewhere, and actually joins it up to
already existing spatial data within the GIS. And this is done in Arc,
it’s done in QGIS. It’s just pushing a couple
different buttons in a couple different ways. So, Adams County right down here
in the Western little corner of the state, you join
them together. It’s just going into
the properties of this spatial data, saying “join.” I’m going to select the column
from that spatial data set that has the unique
identifier in it. I am going to then find or
browse to my Excel table, or you could also use text
files, comma-delimited files, other types of data
bases work, as well. And then, you say okay,
from that Excel table, now find the FIPS. And it’s basically going to
take those two data sets and join them together. So, if you do it right,
everything matches up. If there wasn’t a county in
Illinois with a FIPS of 17001, this whole row
would just be blank. So, you have to know kind
of going into your data to double check it. FIPS codes are pretty standard,
and there aren’t really many problems with those for
the most part, depending on where you’re at. And then, you just go
back, and it’s done. And then, you can go into your
layer properties and start making the map more meaningful. So, you can do a
graduated symbol sort of a map. You see all the new columns of
data from that table are now found within the data set. You can select oats. I don’t know why you would
want to select oats, but you can see how many oats
there were and where they were in 1925, and you
can make a map. So, it takes data that doesn’t
have necessarily any spatial meaning to it, hooks it up to
an already existing spatial data set, in this case counties,
and you can make maps. Yeah?>>Steve:
Are there FIPS for census tracks?>>Chris Laingen:
They have their own individual numbers, as well, but yeah FIPS
was just at the county level. From the county level, I don’t
know if the FIPS codes are the first part of a census track,
but the numbers basically just keep getting longer
and more detailed, all the way down to
the block, so yeah.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Alright, no questions?>>Chris Laingen:
Thank you. [applause] >>Barry Kronenfeld:
So, Newton Key is up next.>>Newton Key:
There, okay. So, originally I did
my dissertation on Herefordshire region politics
in the late 17th Century. And if anybody wants to read
it, I can let you borrow it. But I was watching–
this is your obligatory sports reference. I was watching a football
game– probably the last time, this was years ago. I was watching a football game,
and it was a busted play, and the running back ran into
his own blocker, right? And so, they asked, and there’s
the color commentator who sort of adds little bits,
and his answer, the guy said “What happened?” And he goes, “Well everybody
has to be somewhere, right? And that’s where that guy
was when he ran into him.” So, that was my theory
for doing local history. And I’ve moved into, in my
teaching and stuff, I’ve been sort of, well, in my own
research, obsessed with cities and so on, and so this
is what this is about. I’ve sort of discovered the
mapping part is an important part of that. So, I was at a faculty summer
institute up in Champaign, or it might have been regional. I was looking through my
notes, I can’t figure it out what it was. And I met this guy, Kenneth
Konopka, who was a linguistics professor, and I think went
and did other things because there are not as many
classes as there used to be for linguistics. But this is actually a screen
shot from a TED Talk, a TEDx Talk he did on community
cartography, but when I heard him, he was
just starting this. And you can’t really tell that,
but that’s Chicago, sort of. He did this thing in his class,
and he was using Google Maps and loading in data
onto Google Maps, and it looked really simple. And that’s the sort of thing
that I adopt in the classroom. I’m not going to adopt something
that’s really going to take me a lot of time, right? So, he was very nice in the
beginning, and he did that. So, okay, when we’re doing the
histories of cities and so on, I have sort of two problems:
one, here’s the city, and here’s what was the city,
and they’re really quite completely different, right? And so, how do they get
a sense of that. And then, how do you
say where that city was? And the problem is, well,
simple, there’s simple views of it, and very complex. So, this is also time-based. So, Tudor London, it’s very
bound, but really where are things in this, right? There’s a few streets and stuff. And then, just 150 years later,
it just gets too complex to really– So, you need it scalable so
you can pull it in and out, and that’s what I worked on. So, this is not my map. It was one of my favorites. So, this is your very simple–
this is so students can understand this. You can get this on the web. The problem is this
is actually Southwark. You can tell because it
says Southwark Cathedral, so it’s not the
East End at all. The East End is off this map. The city is over there, so it’s
a completely wrong map, but it’s simplified, right, you
know? [no dialogue] Okay, so what I did– This year, I have a senior
seminar, I’m working withJhad Smith, as a humanities senior
seminar on culture of, basically of early modern
London, 18th Century London. And rather than sort of show
that huge, huge London that you can’t really make sense
of, “Oh, I’m studying London.” Well, no sense there. I broke them into groups, and
they did different sections. So, this is a Southwark
group, and they had to find places in there. They’re actually retracing. We have a textbook that’s
sort of, not a textbook, but one of the books we’re sort
of using now where they said, “Oh, imagine you’re walking
in 1550 and go through these places,” and they
said, “Okay, that’s fine. We want to walk that
same places in 1700.” So, we want to find pictures
as close as they can. And in Google Maps, you can
insert those things and all. I mean, this is all, Google
Maps is set up so you can tell your grandmother where
you’re going on your vacation. So, it’s very simple. It’s not really
difficult stuff to do. But it takes a little
bit of learning. And I’ll just point this– oh,
I could do this, can’t I? Up here it says– you can’t see
this full thing because I was trying to get the picture, so
it says “inserted in brackets are,” and that’s my own
contribution to them, I said “inserted in brackets are things
you might want to consider.” So, this was sort
of a learning tool. In other words, they
set this up, and I go, “Well, that’s not
actually in Southwark. You might want to do something.” In fact, they ended up in
Somerset House, which is not in Southwark, but never
mind about that. But anyway, they had
things in slightly old places. They had the wrong
bridge, you know. And what they’re doing is
they’re just typing in there, and they’re finding the place. And I go, “No, but that’s
not the place then, so you need to do
some research.” Well, it turns out there’s a
lot of research you can do. So, this is what– oops, that’s
not where I want to go. And then. that same group later
on, we are mapping criminal histories, and this is one
that I did last year, Still sort of working
on how to do this. And it is a man who was actually
born near the Jewish synagogue and is Jewish himself, or at
least lived near the Jewish synagogue, then robs somebody
and manages to kill the guy. And so, he ends up going this
long route, the long red route here with this little thing that
I’ve been working on here, is, goes off to Tyburn. So, this is the same one. And what I’m taking is, each
group then has something in text from the period,
and you can get it. This is from the old Newgate
Calendar, Old Bailey Online has a little more detail. And say, Oh, there’s places. Creechurch Lane, where’s
Creechurch Lane? Letton Hall Street,
where’s that? Can you put that on there?” And just because, Jose, you
all did not end up– well, where Marble Arch is today is Tyburn,
and there’s where he was hanged. And this is actually
from the map from 1746, so it’s pretty close, right? So, they were working
on this yesterday. This is what the group is doing. Right now, they have
these different people, John Staley, Louis Hosarck. All these people are no longer
with us because they’re about to be executed. But they’ve been doing it. And ultimately, I want them
sort of chronological, so they’re going to need to
pull the Tyburn cross down to the bottom of their
story and so on. This one has it down a little
better with Daniel Demory and George Purchase and all, and
this is– this is where it’s become scalable. I put all of them before,
but now– I guess I can keep using this. Have you ever
taught before, Newton? Okay, so he was actually down
in Westminster Hall. He’s up here. They have a big bonfire here. This is actually some
riots where they attack non-conformists over here, and
eventually ends up in Newgate Prison, so that’s
kind of interesting. And we have a map of where
Newgate Prison is from the period so they can sort
of overlay that on there. Yes?>>Dagni Bredesen:
Do you assign them the different people and the
different places, or are they picking that out of the
readings and then putting the key on the other side?>>Newton Key:
They put all this on, and they pretty much put
all that up yesterday. But I am telling them,
“Your group is Daniel Demory. Figure this one out.” And you want to look at these a
little more carefully than I did because there wasn’t as
much on Herman Strodman, but we’re working on it, right? >>Dagni Bredesen:
And is the red, yellow, and blue, is that the
different groups or are those–?>>Newton Key:
Yes, so in other words– well. I could show you
how to do Google Maps. But if you just take each one
of these and go over here, has a little color thing,
you can change your icons. There are set icons whereas
if you had another product, you could actually sort
of make up your own– how did I do that? What did I just do? Yeah, sorry. There we go, I’m back, I’m back. [no dialogue] So, and I’ve just said, but you
have to have a separate icon so we can– otherwise,
it doesn’t make sense. And ultimately, they’ll try to
draw up lines for these people. The point here on this one is
that ultimately, if you have these in chronological order,
you actually have a narrative. It’s the geographic narrative. If you click on this, it would
show where he started and where he goes, and so you’re
trying to get a narrative out of the GIS.>>Karen Gaines:
So, they’re all sharing one interface?>>Newton Key:
The last one, the Southwark, I had them all separate maps. This one, they’re just
sharing the same map.>>Karen Gaines:
So, when your group logs in, they could be
independently logged in? So, even if you have one session
going, if one student is working on it, can they
log in separately?>>Newton Key:
They were all working on this at once. They finally realized
that if you click on it, you like can make the
others disappear. They’re still there. You just don’t see them
while you’re working on yours. So, I at least had one, I
probably had several in each group, working in the
classroom at the same time. Yes, Steve?>>Steve:
So, Google Maps has all this helpful commercial data overlays
that are defaulted into when you go to Google Maps.>>Newton Key:
Right.>>Steve:
Are you able to go in and remove all that so the people
don’t have their 18th Century criminal with a pushpin
next to a Pizza Hut? >>Newton Key:
No, you are not. And at the end, I’ll say that
Barry is working on something with me where we– his class
actually georeferenced a 1682 map that I could do the same
stuff in ArcGIS, isn’t it?>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Right, a different– their online platform, which does
allow you a little more control, in terms of toggling what
your base layers are and things like that.>>Newton Key:
And you have to be careful if, in fact, that your thing
is on the Pizza Hut. All of the Pizza Hut information
will populate your thing. You can remove it, you know, so. I mean, there’s something
sort of exciting about that. Okay, so I’m really
doing London. But in my other class,
we’re doing Irish history. And we’ve been reading a novel
called “A Star Called Henry,” which is– the guy that
did a lot of research about 1900 to 1920 Dublin. And I realized, whoa,
we could do the same thing for this. And so, we did this. And so, in fact, our star of
the novel is going to be right here, which is the
General Post Office, and right across the street
is the Imperial Hotel. And this is– actually it’s
after it’s all bombed out after the 1916 Rising, but we
can put all these places. They’ve just been doing it
sort of chronologically, or not chronologically,
by chapter, where these places
are mentioned. And they can find a lot
of images and, in fact, they found a lot of the– do
I have a couple minutes? Am I running over? Where are we? We need to move on.>>Newton Key:
Okay, so, but anyway, there’s a lot of stuff
that mentions these underground rivers. And I thought, oh god,
we’re never going to find these things. And sure enough, they
found all these things. Well, of course, if you actually
go to Wikipedia, there’s all the rivers in Dublin, and
you could locate these. They don’t show up on the map,
so you have to sort of use a little bit of things there. Because, his father dumps
bodies in these places. And this one guy, because
his father, they yell– we’re not taping this, right? So, they yell “fuck off” to the
police, and then the father, the only good thing the father
ever does for him, is takes him underground in this area. And this one kid that actually
traced the whole route of where they went, and everybody clapped
for him because that was a little bit beyond what they did. And that thing, the symbol of
the dark and forgotten aspects of the birth of the
Irish Republic, we were looking at the map. I asked them yesterday, “Why
do you think he has all these rivers and stuff?” And they did that, and that’s
like the most literary thing they’ve ever said. S,o I thought that was kind of
amazing, and they got that from the map. So, that’s it. It’s understanding a place,
but also providing a narrative that’s geographically based.>>Karen Gaines:
Yeah. [applause] And I think, as I get the
next one going, and I think that the take home of that
is, really, you could have done it in any of those GIS’s. It kind of would have
given you a different show, like having a Pizza
Hut next to it. That sort of is
interesting in its own right. But if you do it in CartoDB,
it would show it a little bit differently, so on and so forth.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
And I want to add that Newton came to my class this
semester, and we had a little bit of collaboration,
which involved– My students always do
a georeferencing project, so we decided to pull
in an old map from 1682 that he had mentioned.>>Newton:
I went and lectured in his class. His class had been
georeferencing this map, which means sort of stretching
it because it was actually pretty accurate for 1682, but
as you get towards the edges, it all sort of needs to be
stretched for a modern map. And I just talked to them about
the theory of what plotting means, because I’m looking
at the Rye House Plot in 1683. The plotters used this very map,
right, and I’m going to try to place these things on there. And I went around to each group
after I had lectured a bit about why I was doing this, and we had
discussions about Southwark. And it was just the best. I never had a class of 15
people working on my own stuff before, so I was pretty excited.>>Karen Gaines:
Anyway, so without any further ado, you’re going to
talk about imagery.>>David Viertel:
I am going to talk about imagery, and I’m going to
start out with something very accessible. This is a neat little website
that’s been around a few years now. This is a website called Tomnod. That means “big eye”
in Mongolian, apparently. I don’t know. I don’t know Mongolian. But this website was founded
in 2010, and it was originally started as a research project by
some professors at UC San Diego, but it was eventually bought
out by a corporation called DigitalGlobe. And what it is, is a way
of crowd sourcing, getting a lot of eyes on
imagery quickly. Particularly when there’s
a good reason for it, say a natural disaster. So, without further ado. If you just click on the image,
it should pull up the site.>>Karen Gaines:
Took a moment, but we got it.>>David Viertel:
Okay, yes. And Tomnod, like I
said, is owned by this corporation DigitalGlobe. DigitalGlobe is the largest
private purveyor of satellite imagery today in the world. They were formed by the
mergers of three or four other smaller companies. So basically, they own
most of the U.S. commercial satellite market at the moment. But what’s interesting about
this site is they put up their imagery for free. Now, in certain areas for
certain reasons, but Tomnod is used to respond
to disasters. One of the most recent– [unclear dialogue] Oh, they’ve updated the site
since I was in my office a little earlier. One of the most recent,
Cyclone Pam hitting Vanuatu. I think we’ve all heard about
that on the news, and this is a good example of the
sort of the thing they do. They introduce you to it, and
then they tell you a little bit about the event. And then, they say “Oh,
you want to start tagging.” Well, what they’re asking you
to do is to tag areas that might in one way or another
have sustained damage. So, to do this you can– we
have a lot of jungle here. But let’s see if I can get to
an area here that’s a little more interesting to look at. [no dialogue] Well, let me just try down here. But you can jump around
to different imagery. I was trying to find
some buildings here. [no dialogue] I found just some stuff
earlier but it’s at a slightly different scale. Anyway, it allows you to see–
this is the newest imagery, and this was imagery that
acquired post disaster. And if you just click on,
ah-ha, here’s something. Thank you. And you can click on old
imagery, so you can see before imagery. This is before the cyclone
ripped through the islands. And then, you can look at the
latest imagery, and you can see that it probably, definitely
sustained some flooding. And so, you could go up here and
say, “Oh, well here’s a flooded or damaged
building,” and mark it. So, you go through and do this. It’s a thing you
do sort of for fun. But as you do it, thousands of
other people have their eyes on the same imagery. Now, the assumption is nobody–
most of the people doing this aren’t trained. However, the idea is if
enough people look at it, you’re going to have kind of
hot spots emerge where a lot of people have clicked on
this one particular area. And what they then do is they
use that information to sort of create heat maps and say,
“Listen, people are saying there’s some real problems
in this particular region,” and then the analysts, the
professional analysts, go in and focus their attention
on that, rather than having to dig through hundreds
of images slowly, painstakingly themselves. And they do this for fires. They do this for multiple
types of other disasters. Their most successful project
thus far has been when Malaysia Airlines
370 went down. As you all know, they didn’t
find it, but they loaded in thousands of images
over the Indian Ocean. And these are images that they
collect daily, but nobody is looking at because it’s
just a lot of water. But now there’s a
reason to look at it. And they’ve had millions of
people sign up and voluntarily use their time to just go around
and try to look for what might be debris. And then, they would send people
out to check it. So it’s– I don’t know. It’s a fun little website. One of the things I like about
it, I’ve had my students in Remote Sensing do it just
because first of all, they have had some training in
actually assessing these things, and it does, really,
two things for them. First of all, the quality of the
imagery, you may not be able to tell it from back where you’re
sitting, but the quality of this imagery– it’s the highest
resolution commercial imagery you can get right now. And it would cost
probably 2,000 to 3,000 dollars for about 40 kilometers
worth of imagery. There are tens of thousands
of kilometers of this high resolution imagery
available for free for the students to look at. And it’s something, obviously,
we could not afford to purchase. So, it’s a way for them to get
their hands on the latest kind of state of the art
imagery, and at the same time, I think it does a good job of
allowing them to personalize what they hear about natural
disasters, as well, and understand the scope of
the impact this is having on people’s lives. So, I’ll keep that
brief but, yeah?>>Steve:
I was wondering if, I might be a little off base
here, but I was wondering if this kind of a tool might be
an appropriate application for some of the kind of
disasters such as– the first one that comes to mind
is the Taliban destruction of the giant Buddhas. You know, however
long ago that was.>>David Viertel:
Yes, I’m not sure if they’ve done anything like that. They have done some interesting
during the Ebola outbreak. They had people looking at
villages in Africa that people couldn’t necessarily get to on
the ground on a weekly basis. And they were looking at the
satellite imagery, sadly, to see if there were being
fresh graves dug as a sign of was the outbreak ongoing in
some of these isolated areas they couldn’t get to. So, I mean, it’s pretty much
whatever they’re imagination can think of, they’ve tried
to work it into this. And of course, it’s a good
corporate plug for the company that we’re doing this
for– but I don’t know. I find it fun, and it’s
something that’s really easy, simple interface
to do on the web. Nothing else, no prior knowledge
required, so I thought I’d introduce it to you guys. Yeah?>>Audience Member:
How often is land scaled maps refreshed, like everyday?>>David Viertel:
Usually, what they will do, like in the case of Cyclone
Pam, they grabbed the imagery, the first swath of imagery
that passed over the islands. They collected that, and they
dumped that out on the web. And then, they had some archival
imagery to compare it to. And no, they haven’t
updated it since then. However, if there are ongoing
disasters, they will update it over time. So it’s, yeah, it can be updated
over time.>>Karen Gaines:
I think the political type stuff for just rallies and those
types of things, that would be really interesting
in poli-sci.>>David Viertel:
Right, and they try to be topical, and yeah, so. Alright, thank you.>>Karen Gaines:
Thank you, Dave. [applause] >>Barry Kronenfeld:
And Dave highlights what is sort of a good segue into my
talk, as well, because he highlights one of the most
interesting developments in GIS in the last decade or so, which
is the incorporation of volunteer geographic
information and social media. And I’ll be honest, I found
this really difficult because I am a social media phobe. I don’t know how to use it. I don’t know why people use it. I have a Facebook account,
I think I’ve made two posts to it in the
last year and half. I have a Twitter account. Does anybody
follow me on Twitter? [laughing] Because I’ve never Tweeted. I just have the account. [laughing] But I saw– some of my former
colleagues at another university wrote a paper where
they pulled in Twitter data, and they made maps of it, they
did some analysis of that. I thought, oh, that’s
kind of interesting. If they can do it,
maybe I can do that. Just to show you how much
of a social media noobie I am, my first thought was, are
we violating people’s privacy by taking their private Tweets
and mapping them out? Well, of course not. They’re public. So, let’s see– oh, I
have a clicker here. So, I went online, and I
tried figuring out how all of this stuff works. And Twitter is one of the most
sort of academic-friendly of the social media sites, probably
because their clients are freely making their comments public. And so, Twitter offers this API
that anybody who has a little bit of programming experience
can look at this and figure out how to pull Tweets off
of the internet live, as they are coming in. And you can watch
these Tweets come in. You can search by keywords. You can search by
geographic area. For some reason, you can’t
search by keyword and geographic area at the same time, so you
have to kind of pick and choose. And lot of these
Tweets are georeferenced. Now, when I say a
lot, it’s only about 1% to 3% of all Tweets. But they’re a georeference
either because people have turned their location
ability on, on their phone, and they’re Tweeting
from their phone. Or a lot of the times, they’ve
just, when they registered for Twitter they will put in an
address or something like that. And so, these locations are
either where they were when they Tweeted or sometimes they’re
where they live, and they could be on vacation in Italy, but
it’ll give the location where they live. So, I decided to try my hand at
this, and I thought it would be a cool way to sort of
get students involved because it’s kind of cool. You can see what
people are talking about. It opens up a way of looking
at the spatial distribution of things like culture
that we never could look at before, right? And so, I developed a script,
and it wasn’t very hard to do. I developed a script to do it. I put it up on my website. Anybody in the world can
download it, although there are probably lots of other scripts
that can do the same thing. But I put it there. I made a usage guide And my goal, because I’m trying
to introduce this into the introductory GIS course, was to
make a script that students could use where the
documentation, the instructions, could
fit in one page. And I managed to do that,
and so my usage guide there is a one-page document. I won’t show it to you. But it’s not very hard to go
in, and all you’ve got to do is switch the keywords and put
in whatever keywords you want. So, I’ll show us
some of the maps. These are maps my students
put together, and so they kind of show what students
are interested in. And I guess one thing that
students are very interested in are beverages. [laughing] And I had them all do a
comparative analysis because you don’t want to just map one
thing, because you might just be seeing where people Tweet. So, you want to compare
two different things. So, this is a comparison
of Coke vs. Pepsi. And I was surprised,
but there is a clear spatial pattern here. Coke was dominant in the
U.S. and U.K., but Pepsi in much of the rest of the world. I never knew that. Is anybody here from
psychology? I mean, this is a very
basic happy vs. sad Tweets. And this student actually, the
map on the left is from the Twitter data ,and the map on
the right is some actual data from, I don’t know what that
is, WalletHub website, but trying to see if the
Twitter data corresponds. And one of the limitations of
this was I had this impression that if you turn this on and
you’re getting live Tweets, you might get
10,000 Tweets a minute. But it turns out that, even
though there’s a lot of people Tweeting any keyword
that you pick, well, most people are probably not Tweeting
about Coke and Pepsi, or Tweeting about happy and sad. So, the students had to sort of
set this running and wait a long time to get enough Tweets to
actually make a spatial pattern. So, there’s a lot of random
variation in the Twitter maps because they didn’t have enough
time to get a lot of data. But they did get some
interesting patterns out. So, here’s another
beverage based one. Tea vs. coffee prevalence,
and this one, the Tweets are actually the colors, the
choropleth background, and the color indicates–oh
no, I’m wrong.>>Karen Gaines:
Color is number of Starbucks.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Yeah, color is the number of Starbucks. That’s wrong. Thank you. I can’t read it.>>Karen Gaines:
No, that’s fine, I can see it here.>>Barry Kronenfled:
And the size of the green circle indicates the
ratio of tea to coffee. So, where you have a bigger
circle, then you have a higher percentage of tea Tweets, in
comparison to coffee Tweets. So, people in Maine, and
New York, and Georgia, I guess the Southern–>>Karen Gaines:
Sweet tea.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Yeah, sweet tea. They drink more tea. So, that’s that. So, these are kind of frivolous. But you can actually
look at serious issues with this, as well. If it’s related to culture, you
could look at things related to elections or economics. This is one that maybe is less
serious, but this student had a really interesting idea
in that he followed the Tweets over time. And he was more social
media savvy than I was. He knew a website where you
can go and look up things that are hot on
Twitter right now. And so, he picked something
that was really hot that week, it was this WhatsApp thing. And the map doesn’t show it, but
if you read the text there, he says, “My data showed the
spread of the app with an increase in average distance
from the closest major cities of 3.8 miles over the week.” So, in other words, the first
Tweets about this were coming from the big cities, and then
over time it spread out into the less. And it’s not a huge difference,
but 3.8 miles over the week. And so, the last one I’m going
to show you is where I was trying to capture
the same thing. And these are texts with
the words, “Can’t breathe.” And I happened to pick
just the right time. I set my home computer running
for most of a week to get this. And if you guys remember, “Can’t
breathe” was in the video with Eric Garner. And so, I think the video was
many months earlier than this, but this is just when
it hit the news. And so, when it first hit the
news, just a few major cities. You can see Washington D.C. Actually they’re not
all big cities, either. There are some out in
the country there, and then a few more. And then, on December Sixth it
really starts to come up. And then, December Seventh. And so, you can really see
the diffusion of ideas. So, I thought that was kind of
neat to be able to see that. I think that’s all I have. Do I have– nope,
that’s all I have. [applause] >>Karen Gaines:
And as Jill starts, I really just want to say how much
Barry has brought coding to sort of the students who have
been intimidated by it. It’s just been awesome,
so thank you for that.>>Jill Deppe:
And I can say that includes some of my graduate students. When I can’t do it, I send them
to the Geography Department. So, I’m going to– I’m
in biological sciences, and I’m going to talk a little
bit about land cover maps and landscape change. This is one of the ways I
use GIS, and it’s sort of– I’m going to not say too much
about the techniques behind it, but just show you some
of the ways I infuse it into my classes. And I teach a lot of
different classes in biology. Most of these are majors
classes, but I’ll say that the environmental biology
course actually has a non-majors equivalent. And I think the use of these
maps is actually has had more of an impact on the
non-majors than the majors, because I think a lot of our
majors are starting to look at spatial data more so
than the non-majors. And let me just start out by
saying these land cover, land use maps are just
categorical representations of the landscape. It’s only one way we can
represent the landscape, and they can be categorized
in lots of different ways. I’m categorizing them based
on land cover and land use. I use them mostly to emphasize
to students how we can take the ecological or environmental
concepts we talk about in our class and put them into a
spatial context, because a lot of our students are used
to looking around them. They can see
environmental change. They can see issues. We’ll talk about
processes of disease in biology. But when you put it into a
map, we can start talking about things similar to what Barry was
talking about, the spread, not of information but the spread of
diseases, or how predators and competitors move through the
landscape, or how contaminants can move through the landscape
and make their way into our water sources, for example. So, what we start out with,
and I apologize going from one computer to the other. Some things got shifted a bit. But we start out with either
an aerial photograph or a remote sensing image. And Dave is going to actually
talk about where you can get some of those. And using lots of different
approaches, we can classify our landscape and put
them into categories. Now, I’m looking at
land cover and land use. The process to get from here
to here, there are lots of different ways. It gets to be complicated,
and that’s when I send my students to Dave. Now, this was something I did
manually as a post doc. Of course, they put the post
doc on to do this manually for 30 sites in Illinois, it
took me quite a few years. But in my landscape ecology
class, I’ll talk about some of the techniques, the details,
how to create the maps, what goes into thinking
about the maps. We often can get these kinds
of maps on the internet, okay? But there’s a lot to go
from here to here that affects our interpretation. So, some classes I focus on the
technological aspects, pros and cons of using them, the
appropriate applications. But in a lot of classes, I just
use them for the wow factor, to illustrate some points,
and don’t talk about how they’re created. So, this landscape, for example,
here, the blue areas, or these lighter blue and darker
blue areas, those are water sources. I can use this in my
environmental biology class. We talk about how the
surrounding landscape, red, is urban or developed areas. Green is forest. Brown is agriculture. So, we talk to them– we talk
about processes of runoff from urban areas or agricultural
areas, and I can discuss, okay, put this into a much
larger context, right? Because I think students see
fields as they’re driving up and down 57. But putting the concepts
together using a visual image like this I think
really has a big impact. Students can start saying, “Wow,
we’ve got a lot of agriculture right next to some of the
streams, and all this agricultural runoff now is
going into the waterways.” And so, we can talk about the
advantages of having forested or grassy buffers around the edges,
and where we don’t have them, what the consequences are. And students really start to
understand those concepts much better, because the
environmental problems we face all take place in a spatial
context, and they’re not in isolation, and I think
this helps students. We can talk, in my wildlife
classes, animals that use these yellow areas–
they’re fragmented. How do they get from
once place to another? And how do we, as
humans, impact that? Thinking about agriculture,
because we are in agriculture, these images all
come from my post doc. We digitized and we
created land cover maps for 30 sites in Illinois. And this ends up being perfect
because I think if you’re going to pull in images into your
class, having local sites really helps the students, because
they say, “Oh, wow, I know some of these areas.” And I think it’s
much more powerful. Now, here was an example, I talk
a lot about agriculture in my environmental biology class,
and how we’ve changed agriculture over time. I can show them these graphs. I can show the how the diversity
of the different crops has changed. I can show them pictures and
say, hey look, now we’ve got this center pivot
irrigation system, and you can try to talk to them about
what the implications of this are, and then I can show them
a map that looks like this. A couple maps. So, I have, this is one
site from Illinois, Savanna. This is 1958. This is 2007. We can talk about how
the landscape has changed. You can see here in the red, we
see increased urban area, but here I’m talking about
those center pivot irrigation systems, and they up
show really nicely. And it gives us the opportunity
to talk about what the consequences of that are
on a much larger scale, and get students to start
thinking about things in a different spatial context. And some students, I find out,
are really spatially challenged, and I think I started out
as one of those students. But by getting them to look
at these images, I think it helps guide them. Sometimes I will also use
the land cover maps. And I sort of make them
transparent so you can see the images underneath. And I have now the opportunity
to talk about how much diversity we had in agricultural
landscapes in the past, and how simple our
environment has become. And again, this is a good
starting point for discussion because we can talk about how
those changes, not just the immediate impacts in terms of
farms, how many different crop types, food diversity,
nutritional impacts, but also what the implications are
on a much larger scale. Sometimes I just really want to
show them, hey, the landscape has changed a lot. And this is a really simple map
where I’ve taken the two maps, put them on top of each other,
and basically subtracted one from the other. Just any place where they’re not
the same, highlight it in red. And they start realizing that,
even though it’s primarily an agriculturally dominated
landscape in the late 1950s and the 2000s, a lot has
changed, and gives them the– really sort of drives home
the point that our landscape is very dynamic. And that we, as a single
species, our footprint is very large. And here’s just another
comparison that I use. But I think one of the points
that I want to bring home, bring up with this slide, is
that the images are great and they can send home a message,
but once you have these land cover maps, you can also
put them into software. And this is free software,
FRAGSTATS, that I use to generate this, and this is
something that’s really easy to do once you have the
land cover layers. You can start
looking at metrics. I can calculate, for each size
of these, how much urban area did we have, how many urban
centers did we have, how connected were they, and
then I can ask about those same parameters, or same metrics,
in both, and then I can ask how they changed. And so, I can actually
put some numbers on this. And I think putting all of this
together into a discussion just on something like
increasing population growth rate, okay? We can talk about how these
red areas, these urban areas, have expanded. We can talk about agriculture. And it really is a great point
for starting discussions, and I think it really does
encourage the students to look at things from a much
different perspective. And I think having Google Earth
and all of these online mapping programs has
really changed things. So, my job’s getting easier. But I think by categorizing
them, we tend to drive different messages home. And they can be categorized
lots of different ways. So, we always have to
sort of preface these discussions with that. And I’ll say that all of these
images, again, we took a lot of time to produce these, but these
are already published in a book. And I am more than welcome,
if anybody wants to use some of these images in their
classes, I’m more than welcome to share them. We’ve put a lot of work into
it, I would really hate for them just to sit in a book. And so, please, we have ones
that show North, Central, and South Illinois. We can show changes over the
last 50 years, regional changes by state, urban growth,
agricultural changes. So, again, I’ll put that out
there for anybody who might want to use them as
a teaching tool. [applause] >>Barry Kronenfeld:
I actually have used Jill’s images from this book in my
class, and it’s kind of– the students, they like to see,
oh, this is data that was collected by somebody
here at Eastern, right, so it’s kind of cool. So anyway, we’ve run
out of presenters. So, a couple of us are going
to talk again, and we’re going to try to be very brief. But Dave and I have a
couple other things to show. And again, building off of
Jill’s idea that the map, putting things in spatial form
just gets people thinking about things in a
different manner. And so, I want to talk about
kind of, oh, well, you’re next.>>David Viertel:
I’m next?>>Barry Kronenfeld:
You’re next, sorry. We’ll come back to that.>>David Viertel:
I’ll be brief. So, I was originally planning to
go to some of these different sites, but I’m just going to
talk you through them instead. There was a question earlier:
“Where do I get some data?” And this is mostly going to
focus on imagery data because that’s most of what I do, as
opposed to just other types of database data that you can get. But many of these sites do have
that other data that you can pull into GIS, as
well, available. So, first remote sensing data
source I’d like to talk about is a site called NASA’s
Earth Observatory. I like this because this has
sort of an image of the day. Everyday, NASA highlights an
image of something that’s going on around the world. They’ll make it topical
if there’s something in the news quite often. What I like about this is if you
click on the image of the day, and all the old ones
are on there, as well, but if you click on
it, it gives context. There will be four or five
paragraphs explaining what you’re seeing. This is yesterday’s image
of a dust storm in the Taklamakan Desert. Today, they had snow
pack in California. And an image from a couple years
ago and an image from today, showing just how little snow
pack is there, and how that’s going to affect California’s
water crisis, excuse me. So, that’s more of just a
topical, subjects of kind of, physical science
related subjects. They have a lot of biological
subjects on here, as well, species, habitat kind of things,
and then a lot of atmospheric studies with climate change. The next source is
kind of a harder source. It’s a source to get some really
excellent data across the United States and, in many
cases, around the world. It’s called GLOVIS, from
the U.S. Geological Survey, And all the data on GLOVIS
is free, since it’s a government website. And GLOVIS has a fairly
easy to search interface. You just click on that little
map, the area map on the left. It’ll pull up imagery over here. Like I said, I’m not going
to go into it, but there, you can narrow it down by the
different types of imagery. Do you want
imagery from Landsat? Do you want aerial imagery? What kind of imagery
are you looking for? So, you can narrow
it down by that. And then, it’ll let you toggle
through, you can say– you can adjust the
time period. So, you can say, okay, I did
some field work last June. Okay, well, I can go to that
area, and then pull up June 2014 and try to find an image that
matches pretty close to the day that I was out in the field. Oh, this one has
too many clouds. Well, you can click the next
day, and it’ll toggle through, and you can kind of compare
cloud cover and find a fairly cloud free day. So, there’s some
great resources here. If you’re looking for
satellite data for free from the government, this is a good place
to go, a good place to start. The next one, a little closer to
home, I was going to talk about is the Illinois
Geospatial Data Clearinghouse. This is up the road in
Champaign at U of I. But the ISGS runs this, the
Illinois State Geological Survey, but mainly what you’re
going to get out of this are two things. First of all, they have
the latest aerial imagery for all of Illinois. In this case, 2011 is the latest
available for all of Illinois. But you can get aerial
imagery with one-meter, or in some cases greater
than one-meter, resolution, which is fairly
high resolution. You can find some
real detail in that. It’s available for
the entire state. It’s available for free. And there’s also a set of
imagery dating back to the ’20s and ’30s on here. So, if you’re interested
in doing a now and then. I’ve actually run across some
people who have contacted me, who just live around here, that
are like, “Can I find an old aerial image of my farm?” And yes, you can. Almost 100% of
Illinois has been covered. They’re missing an image here
or there, but it’s about 99-point-some percent covered. The final thing I want to
highlight on this website, and it’s newer, they just
finally uploaded most of it last year, this has LIDAR data. Now, LIDAR data, I’m not going
to get in detail into what that is, but LIDAR data is extremely
fine resolution elevation data. So, rather than looking at
a picture of the ground, looking at a reflectance of
the ground, you’re looking at finely spaced data about
how tall each point is. And when I say finely spaced,
the vertical accuracy on it, in many cases, is one
to two centimeters in vertical accuracy. LIDAR data is good enough that
in some places, if you zoom in on a football field, like a
stadium, you can see the chalk lines on it because the
chalk lines are picked up as a vertical difference. So, it’s very,
very detailed data. Most of the state is available. The state that’s been flown
and processed is available. There’s still a couple of holes
in sort of the southwest portion of Illinois and a couple of
counties in Southern Illinois, where they’re still
working on acquiring data. But they’re eventually going to
have the entire state up here. It’s all available for free. If you do go to use it,
it’s going to take awhile to download. LIDAR data is extremely large. A county’s worth of LIDAR
data can take anywhere from 20 to 50 gigs of storage space. And that’s actually compressed. You have to decompress
it after you get it. So, don’t think you’re going
to download it in 20 minutes. Another source I want to talk
about was the USDA Geospatial Data Gateway. This is an interesting source
because a lot of people don’t realize it exists. The USDA flies aerial coverage
of the entire United States every year for, in many cases,
for crop and land monitoring purposes, but they
make this data available. And so, you can get an image
from 2014, an image from 2013, 2012. It’s a really good data source
for that, aerial imagery from wherever you want. It’s a pretty easy to use
website. There’s a lot of other GIS data
available from them, as well. If you do happen to use this
site, know that they make it look like it’s going
to cost you something. You put it in your “shopping
cart,” and you start moving through it and you’re
like, wait a minute. I’m going to have
to pay for this? No, you don’t
have to pay for it. You only pay for it if they’re
sending you something physical. You can get them to burn
it to a disc and send it to you, and that costs. If you’re going to pull it off
FTP, it’s just a badly worded website, and so it
doesn’t actually cost anything. And finally, last source of
data, and this one’s very– It’s not unified, let me
say that, is the European Space Agency. The European Space Agency has
as many satellites operating as NASA does, and they are also
giving out much of this data to the public because
it’s taxpayer collected money in Europe. But realize, just because this
satellite is owned by Europe, it overflies all of the world,
and they’re still collecting data around the world. So, don’t forget that there
are other sources beyond U.S. government sources
for free data, as well. The European Space Agency is
very good, but I have found that it’s, depending on what
particular sensory you want to pull data from, you may have to
go to an entirely different database system
to download it. So by far, this is the most
difficult to navigate, but it’s very rich in data. And they’ve got a lot of
really excellent data. And I’m going to get
going and let Barry do his.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Okay, thank you. Thank you for being flexible. Either my slides are out
of order or my program is out of order, take your pick. I do want to mention that I said
we’re out of people, but there are other people that could have
talked here today, that are doing wonderful work with
GIS, and for whatever reason they couldn’t make it. Also I want to point out, Vince
Gutowski at the back of the room is kind of the father of our
GIS program here at Eastern, so he really helped get
this whole thing rolling. The last thing, well, a
couple things I want to talk about real quick. So, one, Jill mentioned the idea
that the map really brings out the wow factor. It gets people
thinking spatially. So, I wanted to point out
a really, a particularly wow factor type of map. An interesting– it’s weird
enough that some people don’t even think of or agree
that it’s a map, but it’s called a cartogram. And you may have seen cartograms
when elections roll around. A lot of places put together
cartograms because what cartograms do is they show
areas in proportion to their population, which is hard
to do because areas aren’t in proportion with that. So, they have to blow up cities
like Chicago or states like New York, and make
other things smaller. But it works for–it’s used
in elections because, on a cartogram, you can see, for
example, that Obama actually won the 2012 election. Whereas on a normal map, it
would look like–who was it in 2012– whoever the
other candidate was. Yeah, Romney, thank you. And this is one from
the Chicago Sun Times. And so, these are really an
interesting type of map that tends to get people thinking,
and it used to be really, really difficult to create these maps. You can see the Chicago Sun
Times is using this block method where they kind of push around
these blocks until they get what they want. But it’s become a lot easier. And there is now a website. You don’t even have
to make your own. There is a wonderful website
I want to introduce you to. If there’s any sort of topic,
a global topic especially, that you want to introduce an
image or map to your students that would really get them
thinking, it’s called worldmapper.org, and they’ve
created I think over 1,000 cartograms based on various
data sources used on countries of the world. And so, I’ll just show a couple
of these, or maybe just one if we have time. Let’s just click on
this internet user. This is actually an animation. Let’s see if we can do that. [no dialogue] Is there any way to
make that bigger?>>Karen Gaines:
Which one?>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Oh, internet users, yeah. And so, this shows– but
it is an animation, if it gets started. The interesting thing is how
it’s changed in the 2000 to 2007 year period that
they mapped, I believe. You can see how quickly internet
technology is diffusing across the world. So, that’s just one of
1,000 examples. They’ve got economic factors,
they’ve got infectious diseases, and all sorts. So, just take some time
and cruise this website, and you can probably find some
interesting graphics to include in your class. If you–>>Karen Gaines:
Yeah, we probably need to end it pretty soon.>>Barry Kronenfeld:
Yeah. I’m getting the curtain call. [no dialogue] If you want to make your
own cartograms, this is a little more advanced, but
there is a free program called ScapeToad that you can use
to make your own cartograms. Here’s a couple
cartograms that I’ve used. This one, for example, shows
African-American population. On the traditional map, we
have no idea where they live. On the cartogram, you can see. I mean one of the big
issues in human geography is how segregated we are as a
country, and this kind of shows that on a graphic. So, I won’t even talk
about this one or that one. This is the same
data you saw before. But supposedly, you can see
it better on a cartogram. I’m not sure it really
worked that well to be honest. So, that’s really it. I’m not going to talk
about spatial statistics. And I’ll let Karen wrap
up and take questions.>>Karen Gaines:
You can certainly stay. We’ve lost most of our customers
here for other components, but I think back to it’s
not your grandfathers GIS. I think we’ve shown that, right? So, what we traditionally have
morphed from, and really, I think you can see
every application throughout the university. It’s just so exciting to be able
to work with our colleagues on this, and that’s what
inspires me and, I think, everybody else here. So, thanks everybody for coming. We really want some
feedback, and we’re going to do this next year. We really want to get that
student stuff going, so thanks. [applause] [music plays]

About James Carlton

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1 thought on “Let’s Talk Teaching: GIS in the Classroom

  1. It would be nice to provide a place to download the slides used in this presentation. Otherwise a very helpful resource, thanks for sharing.

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