Hydrogen bonding in water | Water, acids, and bases | Biology | Khan Academy
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Hydrogen bonding in water | Water, acids, and bases | Biology | Khan Academy

– [Voiceover] I don’t think
it’s any secret to anyone that water is essential to life. Most of the biological,
or actually in fact all of the significant
biological processes in your body are dependent on water and are probably
occurring inside of water. When you think of cells in
your body, the cytoplasm inside of your cells,
that is mainly water. In fact, me, who is
talking to you right now, I am 60% to 70% water. You could think of me as kind of this big bag of water making a video right now. And it’s not just human
beings that need water. Life as we know it is dependent on water. That why when we have the search for signs of life on other planets we’re always looking for signs of water. Maybe life can occur in
other types of substances, but water is essential
to life as we know it. And to understand why water is so special let’s start to understand
the structure of water and how it interacts with itself. And so water, as you
probably already know, is made up of one oxygen
atom and two hydrogen atoms. That’s why we call it H2O. And they are bonded with covalent bonds. And covalent bonds, each of these bonds is this pair of electrons
that both of these atoms get to pretend like they have. And so you have these two pairs. And you might be saying,
“Well, why did I draw “the two hydrogens on this end? “Why didn’t I draw them on
opposite sides of the oxygen?” Well that’s because oxygen also
has two lone electron pairs. Two lone electron pairs. And these things are always
repelling each other. The electrons are repelling
from each other, and so, in reality if we were looking
at it in three dimensions, the oxygen molecule is kind
of a tetrahedral shape. I could try to, let me try
to draw it a little bit. So if this is the oxygen right over here then you would have, you could have maybe one lone pair of electrons. I’ll draw it as a little
green circle there. Another lone pair of electrons back here. Then you have the covalent bond. You have the covalent bond to one hydrogen atom right over there. And then you have the covalent bond to the other hydrogen atom. And so you see it forms
this tetrahedral shape, It’s pretty close to a tetrahedron. Just like this, but the
key is that the hydrogens are on one end of the molecule. And this is, we’re going
to see, very very important to the unique properties, or to the, what gives water its special properties. Now, one thing to realize
is, it’s very, in chemistry we draw these electrons very
neatly, these dots up here. We draw these covalent bonds very neatly. But that’s not the way
that it actually works. Electrons are jumping around constantly. They’re buzzing around, it’s actually much more of a, even when
you think about electrons, it’s more of a probability
of where you might find them. And so instead of thinking
of these electrons as definitely here or
definitely in these bonds, They’re actually more of in this cloud around the different atoms. They’re in this cloud that
kind of describes a probability of where you might find them as they buzz and they jump around. And what’s interesting about water is oxygen is extremely electronegative. So oxygen, that’s oxygen
and that’s oxygen, it is extremely electronegative,
it’s one of the more electronegative elements we know of. It’s definitely way more
electronegative than hydrogen. And you might be saying, “Well, Sal, “what does it mean to be electronegative?” Well, electronegative
is just a fancy way of saying that it hogs electrons. It likes to keep electrons for itself. Hogs electrons, so that’s what’s going on. Oxygen like to keep the
electrons more around itself than the partners that it’s bonding with. So even in these covalent bonds, you say, “Hey, we’re supposed to be
sharing these electrons.” Oxygen says, “Well I still want them to “spend a little bit more time with me.” And so they actually do spend more time on the side without the hydrogens than they do around the hydrogens. And you can imagine what
this is going to do. This is going to form a
partial negative charge at the, I guess you could say,
the non-hydrogen end that is the end that has, that’s
well I guess this top end, the way I’ve drawn it right over here. And this Greek letter
delta, this is to signify a partial charge, and it’s
a partial negative charge. Because electrons are negative. And then over here,
since you have a slight deficiency of electrons, because they’re spending so much time around the oxygen, it forms a partial positive
charge right over there. So right when you just
look at one water molecule, that doesn’t seem so interesting. But it becomes really
interesting when you look at many water molecules interacting together. So let me draw another water
molecule right over here. So it’s oxygen, you have two hydrogens, and then you have the bonds between them. You have a partially
negative charge there. Partially positive charge on that end. And so you can imagine the partial, the side that has a partially
negative charge is going to be attracted to the side that has
a partially positive charge. And that attraction between these two, this is called a hydrogen bond. So that right over there
is called a hydrogen bond. And this is key to the behavior of water. And we’re going to see
that in future videos. All the different ways that hydrogen bonds give water its unique characteristics. Hydrogen bonds are weaker
than covalent bonds, but they’re strong enough to
give water that kind of nice fluid nature when we’re
thinking about kind of normal, or you could say, normal
temperatures and pressures. This nice fluid nature, it
allows these things to be attracted to each other,
to have some cohesion, but also to break and reform
and flow past each other. So you can imagine another
hydrogen bond with another water molecule right over here. So put my hydrogens over there. Put my hydrogens, your
bonds, partial negative, partial positive right over there. And so we’ll see in future
videos, hydrogen bonds, key for water flowing past itself. Key for its properties to its ability to take in heat. Key for its ability to
regulate temperature. The key for its ability is
why lakes don’t freeze over. It’s key for some of
it’s properties around evaporative cooling and surface tension and adhesion and cohesion,
and we’ll see that. And probably most important, and it’s hard to rank of these things, if we’re thinking about
biological systems, this polarity that we
have in water molecules and these hydrogen bonding, it’s key for its ability to be a solvent, for it to be able to have polar molecules be
dissolved inside of water. And we’ll see that in future videos.

About James Carlton

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23 thoughts on “Hydrogen bonding in water | Water, acids, and bases | Biology | Khan Academy

  1. I really enjoy listening to your teaching. Great work and thank you.
    May I know the name of the one who is making this video

  2. Your drawing skills are amazing. Like, they're just sketches, but you can so clearly see the amazing skill coming through anyway. Amazing

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