How does an Electric Car work ? | Tesla Model S
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How does an Electric Car work ? | Tesla Model S


Electric cars are making big waves in the automobile world These noise-free, pollution-fre and high-performance] vehicles are expected to make their IC engine counterparts obsolete by 2025 This video will unveil the hidden technologies behind the Tesla model S which recently became the world’s fastest accelerating car We will see how electric cars have achieved superior performance by analyzing the technology behind the induction motor, inverter Lithium-Ion battery Power source, and, above all, the synchronized vehicle mechanism, in a logical step-by-step Manner The powerhouse of the tesla car is an invention made by the great scientist Nikola Tesla around 100 Years back: the induction motor The induction Motor has two main parts: the stator and the rotor You can see the construction details of the motor here The rotor is simply a collection of conducting bars short-circuited by end rings A three-phase AC power input is given to the stator The three-phase alternating current in the coils produces a rotating magnetic field. The tesla motor produces a four-pole Magnetic field. This rotating magnetic field that induces current on the rotor bars to make it turn In an induction motor the rotor always lags behind the RMF. An induction motor has neither brushes nor a permanent magnet. At the same time it is robust and powerful. The beauty of an induction motor is that its speed depends on the frequency of the AC power supply. So just by varying the frequency of the power supply, we will be able to alter the drive wheel speed This simple fact makes electric car speed control easy and reliable The motor Supply is from a variable frequency drive, which in turn controls motor speed. The motor speed can range from Zero to 18,000 rpm. This is the most sizable advantage electric cars have when compared to internal combustion cars. An Internal Combustion engine produces usable torque and power output only within limited speed range Therefore, directly connecting the engine rotation to the drive wheel is not a clever idea. A transmission must be introduced to vary the drive wheel speed On the other hand an induction motor will work efficiently in any speed range Thus no speed varying transmission is needed for an electric car moreover an IC engine does not produce direct rotational motion The linear motion of the piston has to be converted to rotational motion This causes major problems for mechanical balancing Not only is the internal combustion engine not self-started like an induction motor further, the power output of an IC engine is always uneven Many accessories are needed to solve these issues On the other hand you will have direct rotational motion and uniform power output with an induction motor many components in the IC engine can be avoided here As a result of these factors, a great response rate and higher power to weight ratio comes naturally to an induction motor resulting in superior vehicle Performance But from where does the motor receive power? From a battery pack the battery Produces DC power so before supply get to a motor it has to be converted to AC An inverter is used for this purpose This power electronic device also controls the Ac power frequency thus controlling the motor speed Moreover the Inverter can even vary the amplitude of the ac power which in turn will control the motor power output Thus the inverter acts as the brain of the electric car Now let’s turn our focus to the battery pack You will be amazed to find that they are just a collection of common lithium-ion cells similar to those used in your daily life The cells are connected in a combination of series and parallel to produce the power required to run your electric car Glycol coolant is passed through metallic inner tubes through the gap between the cells This is one principal innovation of Tesla by using many small cells instead of a few big cells Effective cooling is guaranteed This minimizes thermal hot spots and even temperature distribution is achieved leading to higher battery pack life The cells are arranged as detachable modules There are 16 such modules in the battery pack constituting around 7,000 cells The heated Glycol is cooled down by passing through a radiator, which is fitted at the front of the vehicle Moreover you can see how such a low height battery pack when fitted close to the ground level will lower the vehicle center of gravity The lower of gravity improves the stability of the car considerably The large battery pack is also spread across the floor offering structural rigidity against side collisions Now let’s get back to Tesla’s drivetrain The power produced by the motor is transferred to the drive wheels via a gearbox As previously discussed, tesla model s uses a simple Single speed transmission because the motor is efficient in a wide range of operating conditions You can see that output speed from the motor is reduced in two steps Even achieving the reverse gear is quite easy in an electric car. Just change the order of the power phase for this The only purpose of electric car transmission is speed reduction and associated torque multiplication The second component in the Gearbox is a differential The reduced speed drive is passed to it You can see this is a simple open differential. However, open differentials, have a problem of traction control But why does such an advanced car use an open differential rather than a limited slip differential? The answer is that the open differential is more rugged and can carry more torque A problem that occurs in an open differential can effectively be overcome with help of two methods:
selective braking and cutting the power supply In an Internal combustion engine this power supply cut by cutting the fuel is not so responsive In an induction motor, however, the power supply cut is quite responsive and an effective means for obtaining traction control In the tesla this can all be accomplished using a state-of-the-art algorithm with help from Sensors and controllers In short, Tesla Motors has replaced a complex mechanical hardware system with smart, responsive software Did you know an electric car could be driven efficiently with the help of just one pedal? This is due to its powerful regenerative braking system That means saving the huge kinetic energy of the car in the form of electricity without wasting it as heat In an electric car, as soon as you release the accelerator pedal the regenerative braking comes into action The interesting thing is that during the regenerative braking the same induction motor acts as a generator Here the wheels drive the rotor of the induction motor We know in an induction motor the rotor speed is less than the RMF speed To convert the motor to a generator. You just have to make sure that the rotor speed is greater than the RMF speed The inverter plays a crucial role here in adjusting the input power frequency and keeping the RMF speed below the rotor speed This will generate electricity in the stator coils, which is way higher than the supplied electricity The generated electricity can then be stored in the battery pack after the conversion An opposing electromagnetic force acts on the rotor during this process, so the drive wheels and the car will slow down This way vehicle speed can be accurately controlled during the drive using a single pedal The brake Pedal can be applied for a complete stop As you might already be aware, electric cars are much safer than internal combustion cars The cost of maintaining and driving an electric car is much lower than that of an IC engine car With the drawbacks of the electric car evaded through the advent of improved technology, electric cars promise to be the cars of the future We think mr.. J. Who Garcia an electric car expert and youtuber for his technical support for this video? Your support at patreon.com is highly appreciated. It enables us to make additional free educational videos for you. Thank you

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100 thoughts on “How does an Electric Car work ? | Tesla Model S

  1. (Model Tesla S: P 100 D)
    > Results that no journal or journalist will give you …
    > Turbo M6- automoto – Various automotive magazines!
    > Notorious incapable confounding everything.
    > Power, Energy, Units,
    > Autonomy without time and without speed has no physical meaning.
    > 300 km of autonomy in one year? One day?
    > Or in 3 hours for an average speed of: 100 km / h !!!

    APPROXIMATE FORMULAS TO CALCULATE AUTONOMIES AND SPEEDS
                          CORRESPONDING FOR 100% ELECTRIC CARS
                                                                                         
                                             (Tesla Model S: P 100 D)

    C = Battery capacity in (kWh)

    c = Average consumption of an electric car = 20 kWh / 100 km = 20,000 Wh / 100 km
    = 200 Wh / km!

    0.95 = Battery availability coefficient! (5% of the battery is always stored for Tesla computer interventions!)

    A = Autonomy in (km)

    1000 x C (kWh) = c (Wh / km) x A (km) x 0.95 (Basic equation)

    A (km) = 1000 x C (kWh) / c (Wh / km) x 0.95 = (km)

    Example: Tesla Model S: P 100 D; C = 100 kWh

    Average autonomy = 1000 x 100/200 x 0.95 = 1000/2 x 0.95 = 1000 / 1.9 = approx. 526 km!

    V = Average speed (km / h)

    Autonomy corresponding to an average speed of about 90 km / h (city, state, highway 20%)

    Calculation of the constant: K = A (km) x V (km / h) = (km2 / h) (Hyperbolic function!)

    K = 526 km x 90 km / h = 47.340 km2 / h (Constant to remember to calculate speed or autonomy!)

    Up to the speed of 130 km / h we can perform the following calculations ….
                 (Beyond the resistance of the air, the calculations are complicated!)

    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 60 km / h; A = 47.340 / 60 = 789 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 80 km / h; A = 47.340 / 80 = 592 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 100 km / h; A = 47.340 / 100 = 473 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 120 km / h; A = 47.340 / 120 = 394 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 130 km / h; A = 47.340 / 130 = 364 km!

    What maximum speed for 690 km?

    V (km / h) = K / A (km) 47.340 / 690 km = 68.6 km / h (about 70 km / h)

    WARNING !

    For the very high speeds the range is inversely proportional to the speed cube!
    This means that if we double the speed from 130 km / h to 260 km / h (German motorways!) The autonomy is not divided by two …
    but for two cubed that is: 2 power 3 = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 and the km become: 364/8 = 45.5 km!
    We discharge the battery completely into: T (time) = Space / Speed ​​(km / km / h = h) 45.5 km / 260 km / h = 0.175 h = 0.175 x 60 = 10.5 minutes = 10 minutes 30 seconds!

    Attention, the best is yet to come … for all speeds from 130 to 260 km / h !!!

                                                            Constant speed !

    The equation is as follows: A = K x 130 squared / V in the cube!

    V = 130 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/130 x 130 x 130 = 47.340 / 130 = 364 km!

    V = 140 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/140 x140 x 140 = 292 km!

    V = 160 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/160 x 160 x 160 = 195 km!

    V = 180 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/180 x 180 x 180 = 137 km!

    V = 200 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/200 x 200 x 200 = 100 km!

    V = 220 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x130 / 220 x 220 x 220 = 75 km!

    V = 240 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/240 x 240 x 240 = 58 km!

    V = 260 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/260 x 260 x 260 = 45.5 km!

    Unit formula = km2 / h x km2 / h2 / km3 / h3 = km4 / h3 / km3 / h3 = km! C.Q.F.D.

    I will do all these calculations to verify: Tesla model 3 performance!

  2. (Tesla Model 3 Performance)
    > Results that no journal or journalist will give you …
    > Turbo M6- automoto – Various automotive magazines!
    > Notorious incapable confounding everything.
    > Power, Energy, Units,
    > Autonomy without time and without speed has no physical meaning.
    > 300 km of autonomy in one year? One day?
    > Or in 3 hours for an average speed of: 100 km / h !!!

    APPROXIMATE FORMULAS TO CALCULATE AUTONOMIES AND SPEEDS
                          CORRESPONDING FOR 100% ELECTRIC CARS
                                                                                         
                                             (Tesla Model 3 Performance)

    C = Battery capacity in (kWh)

    c = Average consumption of an electric car = 20 kWh / 100 km = 20,000 Wh / 100 km
    = 200 Wh / km!

    0.95 = Battery availability coefficient! (5% of the battery is always stored for Tesla computer interventions!)

    A = Autonomy in (km)

    1000 x C (kWh) = c (Wh / km) x A (km) x 0.95 (Basic equation)

    A (km) = 1000 x C (kWh) / c (Wh / km) x 0.95 = (km)

    Example: Tesla Model 3 Performance: C = 75 kWh

    Average autonomy = 1000 x 75/200 x 0.95 = 750/2 x 0.95 = 750 / 1.9 = approx. 395 km!

    V = average speed (100 km / h) lighter and better Cx than the S P 100 D model

    Autonomy corresponding to an average speed of about 100 km / h (city, state, highway 20%)

    Calculation of the constant: K = A (km) x V (km / h) = (km2 / h) (Hyperbolic function!)

    K = 395 km x 100 km / h = 39.500 km2 / h (Constant to remember to calculate speed or autonomy!)

    Up to the speed of 130 km / h we can perform the following calculations ….
                 (Beyond the resistance of the air, the calculations are complicated!)

    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 60 km / h; A = 39.500 / 60 = 658 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 80 km / h; A = 39.500 / 80 = 494 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 100 km / h; A = 39.500 / 100 = 395 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 120 km / h; A = 39.500 / 120 = 329 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 130 km / h; A = 39.500 / 130 = 304 km!

    What top speed for 580 km?

    V (km / h) = K / A (km) 39500/580 km = 68 km / h

                                                              WARNING !

    For the very high speeds the autonomy is inversely proportional to the cube of the
                                                                           speed !

    This means that if we double the speed from: 130 km / h to: 260 km / h
                                                  (German motorways!)
                     
                             autonomy is not divided by two … but by two cubed
                    
                that is: 2 power 3 = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 and the km become: 304/8 = 38 km)

    We unload the battery totally in: T (time) = Space / Speed ​​(km / km / h = h)

                   38 km / 260 km / h = 0.146 h = 0.146 x 60 = 8 minutes and 46 seconds!

    Attention, the best is yet to come … for all speeds from 130 to 260 km / h !!!

                                                            Constant speed !

    The equation is as follows: A = K x 130 squared / V in the cube!

    V = 130 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 39,500 x 130 x 130/130 x 130 x 130 = 39500/130 = 304 km!

    V = 140 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 39500 x 130 x 130/140 x 140 x 140 = 243 km!

    V = 160 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 39500 x 130 x 130/160 x 160 x 160 = 195 km!

    V = 180 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 39500 x 130 x 130/180 x 180 x 180 = 114 km!

    V = 200 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 39500 x 130 x 130/200 x 200 x 200 = 83 km!

    V = 220 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 39500 x 130 x 130/220 x 220 x 220 = 63 km!

    V = 240 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 39500 x 130 x 130/240 x 240 x 240 = 48 km!

    V = 260 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 39500 x 130 x 130/260 x 260 x 260 = 38 km!

    Unit formula = km2 / h x km2 / h2 / km3 / h3 = km4 / h3 / km3 / h3 = km! C.Q.F.D.

  3. Dear friend
    how we will overcome the rainy seasons and how we protect this equipment's in wet conditions??

  4. We have a Bolt and a Model 3. The biggest benefit is almost NO maintenance. I've been driving the Bolt for two years and the only maintenance done so far is tire rotation. The first two rations were free given by Chevrolet. The one pedal driving on the Bolt is better than the Tesla because the Bolt has a button behind the steering wheel. When you squeeze it, the electric and generative braking slows the car down significantly and thus you hardly use the disc brakes which will last way longer than on gas cars, another huge advantage, I am back to add one thing: We live in California, where the gas price is the nation's highest but we're immune to that.

  5. And this would be our future ????
    When the battery runs out … Its internal resistance INCREASES … And the current that can release the battery decreases strongly! Imagine a bathtub! when it is filled to the maximum with water it is like a charged battery … Its voltage in Volts (potential difference) is like the pressure at the bottom of the bathtub … maximum! opening the drain the liters per minute that come out are like the amps per second or collomb … maximum … The battery discharges and consequently the bathtub as well … the pressure decreases … and towards the end the battery goes haywire … like the flow of water in liters per minute strongly halved! The superiority of giulia its weight decreases with the consumption of gasoline … and its features improve with the gasoline in reserve … Electric cars instead not only the flow of the current decreases but unfortunately the electrons have disappeared but the weight of the battery remains! therefore also accelerate them …. insisting you can also stop ruining the battery definitively …. Certain VOICES confidential, they claim to make the battery last longer than never under 20% and never make quick charges above 80% of the charge! with the consequence of such application to almost lose the capacity of the battery … and in fact half of its autonomy!
    Not to mention the "VAMPIRIZZATO" consumption of Tesla model 3!
    What is it … You must know that the model 3 is permanently interconnected with your SANTONE Elon Musk … In California … where first you can listen in real time to everything you say during the trip and your loving escapades ….
    Not for nothing the Basilese police in Switzerland had to cancel the purchase of as many as 7 (seven) X models due … the secrets disclosed during a chase on highways for drugs … underworld … thefts … terrorism. ..cccc …. returning to the 3 modei … the energy consumed to have permanent interconnection … is equivalent to a permanent consumption of as much as 20 km … In a year there are 7,300 km lost at your expense !

  6. Sounds like a real thing but way too similar to (the so much west hated) idea of communism and of course battery charge (sometimes those things DO blow up)

  7. JUST NOW ABSOLUTE RUBBISH….WHEN THEY CAN CHARGE FULLY IN 5 MINUTES AND DO 300 + MILES THEN PEOPLE WILL BUY….THESE CARS ARE NOT 'GREEN' …..

  8. I have a question: as the car is moving, why can't the mechanical energy from wheels is used to recharge the battery always while running, so that it self recharges.

  9. Is ther a mistake at 3.41? Power/weight instead of Weight/Power? I started to watch your videos recently, you are doing a great work. Thanks for making it very easy for us to understand very complicated technologies.

  10. Can govt. Give any subsidy for consumers in future to purchase n allow retail battery sellers shops.

  11. I ride a motorcityebikes.com electric bike 20 miles to work not touching peddles… then I jump in my Tesla. Same motor made by Tesla

  12. 2:55 that's wrong. Tessa uses a gear reduction of about 10 to 1, so that if the motor is spinning at 100 RPM the wheels would spin at 1 RPM. They do this because motors are more efficient at high RPMs.

  13. According to me i have an other idea you can recharge the battery by other system, when you use brake then break can produce double energy and it depends on cars speed…

  14. When your driving 1000's of miles how much time is wasted letting the car sit and charge. Five minutes I can fill the tank and keep on trucking 630 to 730 miles. Best thing when it rains the bumper doesn't fall off and it doesn't drive into things. What is going to be done with all the old batteries. Electric vehicles makes more carbon print in production.

  15. 7:10 its better to put 2 engines.. 1 for every wheel.. so no need for any kind of differenttial. So instead of one 300kw engine u can put 2 engines of 150kw. And that way u get perfect traction controll.

  16. Excellent video, it looks like Price and Range are the two deciding factors for most people. Given enough time the price will be in range. Tesla just needs to make a few breakthroughs in UltraCaps.

  17. A electric car is the oil price solution,but not to the byer he still have a bill to pay , electricity

  18. Guf cars, towmotor ,weell chairs zo on are electric , what it take to make the distance , a generator , a battery is like u body u put back what u take it

  19. Very well explain how electric car work
    F.Y.I
    I have a Tesla S and Lexus 500 FSport. I still like the Lexus more the Tesla in the long-range travel I only 5 minutes at any gas station but Tesla I need to plan my trip with power station somewhere and wait for 1/2 hour, 100 miles range trip is ok more than that hmmm. I take my gas car.

  20. السياره الكهربائيه تصلح للعمل داخل المدينه فقط ولكن كيف فاتورة الكهرباء مع الغلاء

  21. Since when Nikola Tesla was Greek? If you don't know the background of one of the greatest minds ever better don't say anything.

  22. The car is just for white man land europe Asia American Australia and Gulf land in middle East only 100years to this time the vehicle can't capture Africa land because first or first we don't have strong energy in Africa and again if we have the dangerous energy way then can use to be using the car the people way then can maintain the energy are not there because the energy way then can be using to maintain the car for using is nuclear energy and the nuclear energy is very danger for black man to use in there land and again the continent who have strong rain electric car we also danger for them to use because Africa land also always wealth for water all the time oòooo

  23. Its not polution free because youre relaing on nuclear energy which probably makes more carbon dioxide. And lets not forget that the materials of the battery have to be mined really deep which yeah.

  24. Is it just me or is the engine simulation exhausting the fuel before it has ignited?
    It looks to me like the 4 cycle engine has the camshaft out of time.

  25. Deutscher Titel und dann alles auf englisch. Untertitel in vielen sprachen aber wieder kein Deutsch trotz deutschem Titel. Wer kein englisch kann wird vollkommen verarscht

  26. Lots thinking that the car is mate of nature and environment , but it is not like that, the car needs thousands tones of Pb to make up their battery so it makes environment more polute than useing petrol machine cars.

  27. As IC cars took decades to be conveniently used, it will take some time for electric cars to be perfect. The main reason is power, charging time and abundance of electricity.

  28. 8:24 till the end of the video….pretty not good on wet roads. Try it out for yourself and see the results of too high regenerative braking 🤔 …sudden lose of control…not super smart idea if not possible to self regulate according to the road conditions.

  29. i am a layman when it comes to mechanics, but with so many moving parts, won't the maintenance cost be higher? will these parts not require replacement very often? i am planning on buying an electric car, so please educate me. which parts should i expect would require continuous maintenance or frequent replacement?

  30. Very interesting and excellently realized video. Many thanks!

    As a passive safety engineer myself, I would like to add that the presence of the battery pack increases the torsional stiffness for sure, but not so much for lateral impact safety (the battery structure must be protected, thus the intrussions are to be managed via the body-in-white rocker structure mainly).
    Also for the front unit crumple zone, yes, it is largely increased (if a front motor does not exist), but in counterpart, the rear crumple zone is more difficult to manage comapred to an ICE car (the rear motor and invertor must be protected in the case of rear impact).

    Thanks again, hope my comments would be accepted as constructive opinion. No intention of critisism.

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