“Accommodating Students with Disabilities in the Classroom” UGA – DRC
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“Accommodating Students with Disabilities in the Classroom” UGA – DRC

My name is Chase Haygood. I’m the Assistant Director for Faculty Development
and recognition in the Center for
Teaching and Learning. We’re just
absolutely thrilled that all of you
have come out today to have a conversation,
and to engage in a workshop with the wonderful,
wonderful staff that are in the
Disability Resource Center. I want to thank our
partners in Student Affairs: Sylvia Hutchinson,
Karen Kalivoda, for helping us
put this all together, as well as our presenters
Trisha, Marianne, and Bob. Thank you so much. I don’t need to do
anything more than hand it over to them. I will say that CTL
has an ongoing series of faculty development. We’d invite all of you to pick
that promotional piece up if you haven’t
already seen that. Coming up tomorrow Audrey Hanes
is presenting on using eLC. We’d love to see you there
if you can make it to that. With that, our presenters. Hi all, I’m Trisha Barefield. We’re going to
start off today with just a quick
table activity. So, with the people
at your table, if you look at the
“test your knowledge” sheet that I just handed out. Does everyone
have one of these? So, we’re just going to
take two minutes and this first section,
just these first four questions. Just take a look at those and think about what you
believe the best answers for those would be. So, just two minutes and
we’ll get back together. Okay. Let’s get back together
and see what you all thought. For question one, why do
we provide accommodations? Anyone? What do you believe
the answer is? [Hutchinson] Because we’d
miss out on the wonderful things those students can
contribute if we didn’t. That’s a great answer. [Hutchinson] I thought so. Anyone have anything
to add to that? Okay DRC staff. [crosstalk] The ADA, is that
what you said? The ADA, that is
exactly correct. That is where we’re
going to start today. So, this is going to be
the briefest overview of the legal side of why
we provide accommodations. So, Section 504 of the
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and then the Americans
with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended in 2008. For Section 504,
this is the baseline. This is where we start. This prohibits
organizations that receive federal funding
from excluding individuals with disabilities. Now, this is important because
UGA receives federal funding. UGA does not want to lose
that federal funding. With the ADA, this
prohibits public entities, like UGA, from excluding
individuals with disabilities because of their disability. This is more specific
to educational access and it requires
reasonable modifications for qualified individuals. Like I said, the
briefest overview. If you would like more
information, please see the presentation
that Claire Norins from the Equal
Opportunity Office and our Associate Director,
Pat Marshall will be giving next month through training
and development. So, question two. What types of disabilities
do we see on college campuses? Feel free to shout it out. [woman #1] All of them. What–what is all of them? [man #2] Physical,
visual, auditory. Physical, visual, auditory? Yes, that’s definitely
what we see– [woman #2] Anxiety. Anxiety, yes. [woman #2] PTSD? PTSD, certainly. [man #3] Autism spectrum? Autism spectrum disorder,
definitely. [woman #3] Processing delays? Processing delays, processing
disorders–definitely. And I’ve phrased that
in a specific way. What do we see? Cause the first things you think
about are physical impairment, like mobility impairments. You think about students who
have sign language interpreters, students who are blind– that’s the first
thing you might think of but in reality our population– ADHD is our largest
population with 36%. It used to be that learning
disabilities was our second. In the last few years we’ve seen
a shift and now psychological is our second largest
student population. That’s very much a lot of
anxiety, things of that nature. After that,
chronic health. So, we might see students
who are going through chemo, anything like that. Any questions on our
student population? Now, this is just
the students who are registered
with our office. By no means are all the students
who have disabilities at UGA registered with us. If a student comes to you
and wants accommodations but isn’t
registered with us? Please direct them
to our office so that they can go
through the proper channels to receive accommodations. Yes? [Hutchinson]
[incomprehensible] Oh yeah, go ahead. [Hutchinson] How common is it to
put that in the course outline? The syllabus? The information about
seeking accommodations? Do people do that or no? The question is about
syllabus statements. Well, you should put a
statement in your syllabus stating that equal access
is going to happen in the classroom. We have a variety of sample
statements on our website that instructors
can choose from. But, that is something that
instructors should be doing. Does that answer
your question? [Hutchinson] You said
specifically your phone number, and e-mail,
and you know? For the Disability
Resource Center? [Hutchinson]
[incomprehensible] That is very beneficial if they know exactly
where to contact us. Cause some students just
might not know what’s available to them
at the university. Any other questions? Okay. So, question three is a
true or false statement: it is ultimately the
instructor’s decision if a student receives
accommodations. What do you think? False. That is generally false. We need to provide
accommodations to students who they’ve been
approved for. The only gray
area is making sure that it doesn’t modify the
core course requirements of the course. If it is a public
speaking course, we might have to
be careful about a student who isn’t supposed
to be asked to speak aloud in class,
that kind of thing. But, in those situations,
contact our office; get in touch with their
disability coordinator, and we can work those out. Question four. True or false: an
instructor can ask for documentation of a
student’s disability? [man #4] True? [woman #3] False. False. For this one, you can ask
for– say a student that has a disability is then
just like, has the flu? You can ask for a doctor’s
note in that case. But, if it’s disability related it should go
through our office. We are the sole house of disability documentation
on campus. So, we keep in line making
sure that, you know, student’s information
isn’t in any way– it’s all confidential. We’re under
HIPAA and FERPA and we’re very committed
to confidentiality so all disability documentation
should go through us. [Kalivoda] So, Trish,
as a faculty member, I’d get documentation
from you but I don’t ask
for documentation from their psychologist
or medical doctor? You would not receive
the documentation. [Kalivoda] But I would
receive documentation from your office saying the
student has a disability. Correct. And that’s a
pretty good segue. I gave you all
this packet. Looks like this. What you would receive is
this accommodations letter. I’d like to go over what
goes into getting this letter. Before you get this
letter the student will have to see
a qualified professional. They would have to
get a diagnosis, they would have
to have a report, and proper paperwork
sent to our office stating their diagnosis,
functional limitations, recommended accommodations
from that provider. Then they’ll meet with
someone in our office and we’ll determine what
accommodations they need at UGA. Before you get
this piece of paper, there’s a lot of work
that goes into it. So, please, when it comes
to these accommodations, trust that we’ve done
our due diligence, that the health care provider,
the tester, whoever it is, has done their due diligence, and when you receive
this piece of paper it’s important to respect
these accommodations. Any questions on that? Okay, so, really what I
just wanted to go through is the three most common
forms you might see. The first one is the
professor letter, or accommodations
letter, on the front that I just went over. It only has the
accommodations listed, never the disability. The second one– since I’m testing coordinators,
it’s near and dear to my heart– this is the testing
accommodations form. Newly revamped, hopefully a little
easier to follow. There’s a section for
the student to fill out. Notice that the
dates and times are under the student section. If at all possible please
put on your syllabus what the dates
of the tests are. It makes it easier for
the student to know when to let us know. The earlier the better. Last semester we
completed 4,300 tests. There were over
4,500 scheduled, but then some no shows. So, we have a small center, we do a lot of work, and the earlier you get that
information to us the better. To be completed
by the professor? This section, I’ve
literally circled it, hopefully to make it
easier for you to know what part you need to do. Please make sure
you tell us what types of materials
you’re using. If you think that,
you know, it’s obvious that the
students get a calculator for your class,
we don’t know that. We won’t give them a
calculator unless you tell us that they get a calculator. Same thing with delivery. Just make sure that
we know where, how, you’d like
the test delivered. Any questions on testing? Once again. Kind of a brief overview. It’s–there’s a whole lot
of nuance, so just let me know. [Kalivoda] What’s the most
common test accommodation? The most common test
accommodation most likely is time and a half. Students that just need
a little extra time. Whether that be because watching the clock
go down gives them anxiety or the fact that they have
a processing disorder, something along those lines. Notetaker form:
this is something that a lot of instructors
are familiar with. Typically you’ll get a
packet of all three of these if a student has a note taker
and testing accommodations. So, the notetaker form: we try to make this as easy
for instructors as possible. There’s a little
blurb up here. All you have to do is read
this in front of the class. There’s a student in this class
who requires a notetaker. If you’re interested in
making $80 this semester, please come up to
the front of class at the end of the session. From that point–and
please when you read this don’t point to the
student–don’t, you know, “Hey, this student over here has
a disability and needs–“. Please don’t do that. They can meet
up after class. The student who is
registered with our office can hopefully look at
the notes of the people who come up and
choose which one is best for their style. We want this to actually be
beneficial for the student. Any questions, just generally on
accommodations or classrooms? [Hutchinson] Do students ever
come and register with you? Just let you know that they’d be
willing to be a notetaker before and hope to get matched up or is always through
the instructor? The instructor announces– the question was
if students ever come to us to volunteer to be a
notetaker beforehand. No, the instructor
just announces it. We have some notetakers
who are notetakers for multiple classes. They can also be the notetaker
for multiple students and they just make an extra
$40 per extra student. With that I’m going to
pass it off to Marianne and she’s going to tell you a
little bit about her area. Thank you, Trisha. If you guys want to take
a look at section two and the questions there? Take about a minute
to look at those. Looks like you
guys are all set. So, the first question: we always know well
in advance if a student who needs an accommodation,
such as alternative text or captioned media
will be in your class. How many think
this is true? How many people
think it’s false? You are correct. Our students do have access
to priority registration and they take
advantage of that, but like any student at UGA
they have the opportunity to do drop/add. So, you may end up with
a student in your class on the last day of drop/add
that needs accommodations that are going to affect
the content of your class, such as alternative
text or captioned media. So, I’m going
to take a few minutes and talk about universal design
which is a design principle that’s come out of the
field of architecture. As buildings were being
retrofitted for ADA, it became clear that creating
access and accessibility within the design at the
beginning of the design process was more cost efficient and more effective than
adding it after the fact. So, North Carolina State
University has come up with seven principles of
universal design, which is applying to
the field of architecture but I feel like they
can also be applied to designing curriculum. So, I thought I’d go over
them a little bit with you. So, principle one:
equitable use. It’s talking
about making sure that you don’t stigmatize
or segregate the student like we talked about
with the notetaker forms, that we don’t point them out. They are part of the class and that is a key component
to equal access. On principle number
two: flexibility in use. It’s making sure
that you provide a wide variety
of methods of use. Such as if you have
a pair of scissors that can be used both by
a right-handed person and a left-handed person. So, you’ve designed
something that works for both sets of people. Principle three I felt
like applied best to when working
with curriculum, that having unnecessary
complexity, accommodating a wide range of
literacy and language skills, and arranging the information
consistent with its importance is very applicable to thinking
about working in a classroom. So these principles have been
incorporated into a pedagogy and the organization CAST.org
has done a really good job of doing that. They’ve distilled it
into three main ideas. Those ideas are multiple
means of representation, so how you
interact with a student, doing not just lecture but
providing in-class discussion or possibly
online discussion or group work
with the students, and then having multiple means
of action and expression, how the students
interact with you. So, not just testing them
to assess their knowledge but providing other means
for them to interact with you such as maybe doing
a short essay, or short answer question, or a quiz at the
beginning of class, or doing a portfolio or
another type of project that helps them display
their knowledge of your content so that you can be sure
that they’re being able– that they’re gaining
the information because testing isn’t always
the most efficient way for some learners. They like to be visual
or some other method. Multiple means of
engagement– So we’re going to look at
question number two now and start talking about
my area of expertise which is captioned media. So, we’ve talked
a little bit about how to design
your classroom. Do you guys have any
questions, by the way, about universal design
and ideas behind it? Okay. So, as you’re selecting your
materials and creating a class, we recommend that you select
captioned media from the start because having it
ready makes you prepared for when a student
comes into your class, especially if it’s
on the last day. Cause providing captions is a
very time consuming process. It can delay the content
in your class, so. Which of these answers do you
think is probably correct? [man #6] D? [Gouge] That is correct. But, I will say all of
these are real instances that have taken place
through our office on campus. I especially want to emphasize that YouTube’s automatic
captions do not count as access. They are currently
not accurate enough to be considered equal access and they don’t
even have punctuation so they’re very
difficult to follow. If you’ve chosen
a YouTube video it will still need
to be captioned. We’re going
to do a fun exercise and let you guys
watch a video. See if you can figure out
what this video is about. This is an actual example
that was used in a class. You might’ve had difficulty
understanding the voice. It’s a computerized voice and
we found it very difficult to hear the audio when we
were doing the captioning, which is one reason that
captioning is an important thing to add to your
videos from the onset. Because, you never know what kind of situation
you’re going to be in in the classroom, whether your sound system
is going to be working correctly or if the video
you’re using is going to function
correctly, as well. So, it’s not
just for students that are deaf
and hard of hearing. In our office that’s who
we provide accommodations for. But, it’s very beneficial to all the students
in your class and research has shown that captioning aids
in comprehension because the students are getting
not only the visual feedback but also the
audio feedback. It’s really especially
applies to students with learning disabilities
and students with ADHD. But, it can work
for all your students to have them concentrate and
focus in your class, which– and also if the student
is English as a second language, for them this
will also help them be able to understand
the media better because they’re having that
second channel of feedback. And then, if
you’re in a situation where you’re
creating the content such as in
a flipped classroom and creating podcasts that are
accompanying the material in the class,
having a transcript and having a caption track
added to your video makes it much more accessible
for your students. Makes it searchable and
discoverable for them. They can go into that video
and search the transcript for the concepts that
they may have missed or have questions about and it will jump to
that point in the video and play from those words, which is very helpful for when
you’re doing a flipped class and students are doing
review in their home. I really recommend that
you add captions to your content and look
for captioned content. Here are some resources and they’re also
in the handouts that we have. Amara is a website that
allows you to overlay captions to any video. It doesn’t have to be–if
you’re not the content owner you can still add
captions to it but they also have
a library of videos that have already
been captioned so you can search
that library by topic and see if there’s something
that applies to your content. That’s the same with Dotsub and then for TEDTalks, I often get the YouTube
link to the TEDTalk. Well, on the TED website
they offer subtitles in a lot of different
languages, actually. If you find a talk
that you want to use, just go back
to the original website and they’ll have a captioned
version available. You can use YouTube
to add captions and if you load
it in there it will do
the automatic caption. So, it’s going
to pick up your voice and do the translation
and then you can go in and edit it, and change, and adjust all the mistakes
because there probably will be. Especially for technical
information, for scientific words
and then add punctuation because that’s one thing that’s always going to
be left out with YouTube. But, they actually have
a really good widget that does that. You can adjust the timing and you can
adjust the words. So, it’s pretty
sophisticated, if it is your content
that you have. [man #7] Is that the only online
resource that will do that? Yes. For doing a voice
recognition. Amara, you would still have to
create your own transcript and it’s designed
to let you do, like, short segments
throughout the process. So, in one way you’re
creating the captions and the transcripts
at the same time. So, it might be a
little bit faster, but. [man #7] Even our service
on campus here won’t do that for us. We do it for students
that are deaf and hard of hearing
at the DRC, if the student is in your class
and has an accommodation but currently there’s
not any one source. Though, CTL does have
software that they offer called Screen-cast-o-matic
which, to use the software, you have to create a script and you read off the script
to create your podcast and then that has
taken half the task of creating your captions, so. Any other
questions about–? And I do want to talk
about Films on Demand. Do you guys know about
Films on Demand, because it’s one of my
favorite resources? It’s through the library
so you actually have to go to the library website
into the databases and then find Films on Demand. It is a path but they have
lots of films that have been captioned. You can actually
request captioning if there isn’t
captioning available and they respond
within 2-3 days. They offer segments
of those movies so if you’re not going to use
something full length, you can use a short segment. I’m going to pass it
off to my colleague Bob who’s going to talk
about alternative text. Hi. So yeah, I run the
alternative text office at the DRC, which we provide
accessible textbooks and other required readings
for students who are receiving the
alternative text accommodation due to a print
related disability. That’s one of the more
obscure accommodations that you might not have
a, I guess, everyday understanding of,
like closed captioning or come across it with testing
and notetaking, what not. So, alternative text is
provided to students who have a print
related disability which can be
a number of things including
learning disabilities, ADHD, sometimes mobility
impairments if they’re not able to carry
a huge backpack full of books, or visual impairments. We basically work with
the students one on one to figure out which format is
going to work best for them so we can convert
a physical textbook into an e-text which
they can access with a screen
reader program, or other assistive technology. We can also create an
audiobook version or, more than likely, go to
outside sources for that. We can do large print. We also have the ability
to do braille, as well. Basically when a student
is assigned a textbook that is not
commercially available in an accessible format
we will step in and process that and
provide that for them. If, as an instructor however, you’re providing
materials in class or posting them online it is ultimately your
responsibility to make sure that all your students can
access those documents. So, I think I have
some examples. Just illustrating what an
inaccessible document might be. So, how might this pose
an obstacle to a student trying to read
this in your class? [man #8] Blurry. Hard to read. [Wagstaff] It’s–yeah,
a bit, a bit. These are
all examples of things our office
has processed. For one, it’s
oriented wrong. This pops up on your
screen for everybody. That’s just a pain
to try and go in, navigate, flip it around. Barely fills two-
thirds of the page and it’s a
double page scan. They just laid the
book flat on the scanner. Or, actually, it looks
like they just made a Xerox and some point later
on they scanned that in. Ideally, what you would
want to do is, for one, scan
one page at a time. Zoom in or crop that so the entire page is filling
the entire screen and that allows the text
to be a more readable size, better quality. The problem that
blurry text can lead to is if you try and access that
with a screen reader. I’ll show you an example here. This first bit is
the original text and one of our screen reader
programs, Read & Write Gold, trying to
interpret that and it’s going
to immediately go into the finalized process
document that we provided. Same program reading that. [computerized voice]
[incomprehensible] [computerized
reading text on
screen] So, yeah, you can see entire
sections of text were skipped and it was just gibberish. So, that’s– [Kalivoda]
So, you have to retype it? If you get that? Sometimes we do
have a few programs that can go in and do it. The program will do its best to interpret
what’s on the page and then we have
the ability to go in, edit the text,
make corrections, and then produce an
entirely new PDF that is accessible from
the original material. In cases like this, not even that program can
interpret what’s on here because it’s just a big,
gray, blurry mess. So, in cases like these
sometimes we are literally just retyping the
entire document. But, if that’s what it
takes, you know, that’s what we’re
going to do. This is an example of,
for one, a very poor quality scan. Odds are there was
some sort of color background with black text on there, but when you Xerox that,
you lose all contrast and that’s definitely an issue for students with
visual impairment who require that ability
or, you know, students with reading
comprehension issues. It just does not work
for anyone, really. All right, here’s
one more example. Okay, so this
is an instance where a webpage
was printed out and then Xeroxed
and handed out which presents a
number of issues. There’s way more
information on there than is necessary. A lot of it is just
completely lost because there’s no color
or anything there. The graph is inaccessible. The data there is
completely inaccessible to students
with screen readers. Just, the information
is not there. You lose the color;
you lose the numbers. This is a good
example of an instance where the original
material is still online. This is an article from
seven years ago, I think. It’s still there
and the graph itself, you click on that and it’s
accessible on the website. All the information
is there and accessible to the
screen reader technology. All right. So, yeah, those are some
of the worst case scenarios. That’s what we’re
trying to avoid. When you’re providing accessible
text in your classroom, a few tips we can
hopefully press upon you. Select your books
and materials early. You’re not going to know if your student has the
alternative text accommodation, more than likely, until they present their
professor letter to you. So, you want them to be
able to find out what books they need
to request from us. That’ll be, ideally,
available from the Athena or from the bookstore. They can get that
material to us. We can have their
materials ready by the first day
of class, ideally. As far as accessible materials you plan on handing
out in class and online, you want to make sure an
accessible version is available to the student with the
print related disability at the same time as the original document
is to everyone else. They–you know, an equal
education pretty much means they have the same amount
of time to study materials. They have the same ability to participate in class
discussion as everyone else. All right, yeah, so other
things we might ask. Try and find the original
published documents. If you have an old scan,
or something like that, especially if it’s
a journal article or webpage or magazine article? Odds are you can find an
accessible version online whether it be
through JSTOR or the original
publisher website. A lot of those
are available and more than likely they
are going to be accessible. If you can’t find that, if you can, scan your
original material, like if you’re
just using a book that you just really
prefer the older edition, or something along
those lines. It’s out of print? Try and get a high
quality color scanner. Scan it one
page at a time. Make an intern do it. But the better quality, the more accessible it
will be in the long run. Finally, with those materials
as well as other digital files that you have already, see if you can make
those accessible. Easiest way to do that? This is an original scan
we got this semester. Just trying to
highlight some text. If the entire image highlights
like on the right there? It’s not accessible. It’s just a
picture of a page. There’s no text there as far
as the computer is aware. So, that would not be
accessible via screen reader. Once you run an optical
character recognition, or OCR process you’ll be
able to highlight– the computer will
basically read the text. Embed that data
in the document and you’ll be able
to highlight text, and the computer
will read it. That is a process that there
is software on campus you can
use to do that. Acrobat Pro has
it built in. It’s not going
to be perfect but the better the quality,
the better it’s going to be. It doesn’t guarantee
accessibility though, so if a student does have
issues with that, we can always step
in and help out. All right. So, we have made available
an accessibility checklist to help out with that,
as well as, you know, designing a course with
accessibility in mind. It’s got everything on there from how to make an
accessible syllabus, those links to
accessibility statements. It’s all available
on our website under the faculty section. It also has links to some more technical,
step-by-step, how to make your documents
accessible, as well. All right. So, the teeth. Here we go. Why should we care about
this kind of stuff? There are there have
been a few recent cases in which other institutions did not maintain certain
accessibility standards as required by
the ADA or 504. University of Montana,
a couple years ago, a complaint was filed with the US Department
of Education by– I think this is the Alliance
of Disabled Students at the University of Montana. I think that’s what
that acronym means. Anyways, it was
a number of students who had issues with their online
learning management system. Their version of eLearning
Commons, basically, that distributed all
their course content. It also had their chat
rooms and online forums. Everything was inaccessible for
students with visual impairments or print related
disabilities. Their entire course registration
website was inaccessible. Documents posted online and provided in class
were inaccessible. Videos shown
in class and online, those were not captioned, and they used the
inaccessible Clickers. So, that was a wide
variety of violations which, basically,
students had had enough. They filed that complaint and that is
still lingering. It’s still under
investigation in Montana. UC Berkeley, that was a
case where their version of the alternative text
office– basically they
were not able to provide course
materials in time. They were understaffed,
underfunded, and they had poor communication
with the instructors. They were getting materials
at the last minute, instructors were
not telling their students which books they
needed, and as a result, fortunately, they were
able to work with the Disability Rights Advocates,
a third party, to reach a settlement and that
put in place a pretty– they caught up big time. They are now able to
process materials in less than
10 business days and all of their
campus libraries, they are now able
to provide everything in an accessible format
within a couple of days. They have–they also have these
self-service scanning stations which are–that particular
program is like the first of its kind in the nation. Also faculty are
strongly encouraged to make course materials
available a full six weeks before the class begins. That’ll give students the
ability to request the materials and their office
the time to process them. So, they’re
pretty serious. There’s some, yeah, a few
penalties involved there. And then Louisiana Tech. This is not good. So, their version of– I think WebAssign is the
closest thing we have here– but MyOMLab was used
in a math class. It’s an online platform where
students take their tests, and get their homework,
and it’s graded. Completely inaccessible, especially for this
particular student who was completely blind. They raised the issue
to their instructor. The instructor told them to just
go to the software developer and deal with them. They tried that;
they got no results, and it was a full month before they eventually felt
the student was too far behind and he was forced
to drop the class. Later on, that same student
took a different class with the same
instructor and that instructor was
handing out course materials in the classroom for use that
day for a class discussion, as well as giving out study
materials and stuff like that, in an inaccessible format. The student was not able
to work things out with the instructor aside
from the instructor telling another student
to do it for them. In any case they weren’t
getting accessible materials until several
days after the fact, so they just didn’t have that
real-time equal access. They had less
time to study. They weren’t able to
participate in class like any of their
classmates and he filed suit. Definitely, they won a
sizeable cash award, and the thing is that that resulted in new
accessibility standards, not just for
that particular school but for the entire
University of Louisiana system. So, yeah, I mean, that’s kind of why
this is important. They’re not the only ones. This is happening, especially
with emerging technologies, which unfortunately
accessibility is not always the first thing in mind. Usually it’s campuses are
adopting what’s newest, and flashiest,
and shiniest. They’re using these tools and they’re not maintaining
the accessibility standards that they’re required to
and when they do that, whether it’s the institution
or the professor, it’s not the individual
professor or the department that is facing these lawsuits. It’s the entire university
or the entire system, itself. So, yeah, I think
that is about it. [applause] Captions Provided by: The University of Georgia
Disability Resource Center 114 Clark Howell Hall
Athens, Georgia 30602 706-542-8719 Voice
706-542-8778 TTY

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